Clinical Pharmacokinetics

Author: John Murphy, PharmD, FASHP, FCCP
Affiliation: University of Otago School of Pharmacy, Dunedin, New Zealand
Publisher: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists®
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN 10: 1585285366
ISBN 13: 9781585285365
eISBN: 9781585285372
Edition: 6th

Description:

In the evolving practice of pharmacokinetics (PK), it is important to keep on top of the latest advances. John E. Murphy, Pharm.D., FASHP, FCCP, a well-known leader in the field of clinical pharmacokinetics, has updated and expanded his widely used textbook and reference. Clinical Pharmacokinetics, Sixth Edition, includes the most current information, covering issues such as rational use of drug concentration measurements, changes in dosing obese patients, and considerations for a wider variety of drugs for special populations. There is also a new chapter focused on pharmacogenomics and its impact on pharmacokinetic parameters, as well as discussion of pharmacogenomics throughout the book. Everything You Need to Know About PK Today: - Drugs, dosing, and therapeutic monitoring - Drug concentration measurements - New chapter on the impact of pharmacogenomics - Neonatal, pediatric, obese, and geriatric dosing - Dosing in renal disease and creatinine clearance estimation - Drugs sorted by family and as single drugs Written in a straightforward style, with numerous charts and lists, the sixth edition makes complicated dosing and monitoring information easy to find and understand. Whether you are a student or practitioner, it is a resource you will turn to for reliable guidance throughout your pharmacy career.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • DEDICATION
  • PREFACE
  • CONTRIBUTORS
  • INTRODUCTION: GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC PRINCIPLES

SECTION 1 BASIC CONCEPTS AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS

    CHAPTER 1: RATIONAL USE OF DRUG CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS

    • EVALUATING THE NEED FOR A DRUG CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENT
    • APPROACHES TO DOSING WITH LIMITED NEED FOR DRUG CONCENTRATION MEASUREMENTS
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 2: ESTIMATING CREATININE CLEARANCE

    • FACTORS AFFECTING ESTIMATES OF GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE
    • CREATININE ASSAY STANDARDIZATION
    • FORMULAS TO ESTIMATE CREATININE CLEARANCE IN ADULTS
    • BODY WEIGHT
    • LOW SERUM CREATININE IN ELDERLY OR UNDERWEIGHT PATIENTS
    • AMPUTATIONS
    • SPINAL CORD INJURY
    • CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY
    • DIALYSIS
    • LIVER DISEASE
    • PEDIATRICS
    • PATIENTS WITH UNSTABLE RENAL FUNCTION
    • ESTIMATING TIME TO STEADY STATE SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION
    • CREATININE CLEARANCE ESTIMATION IN UNSTABLE RENAL FUNCTION
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 3: RENAL DRUG DOSING CONCEPTS

    • CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF KIDNEY FUNCTION
    • MECHANISMS OF DRUG CLEARANCE
    • NONRENAL MECHANISMS
    • VOLUME OF DISTRIBUTION
    • DRUG DOSING STRATEGIES FOR CKD PATIENTS
    • HEMODIALYSIS AND CONTINUOUS RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 4: MEDICATION DOSING IN OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE PATIENTS

    • OBTAINING AN ACCURATE WEIGHT
    • BODY COMPOSITION CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY
    • SIZE DESCRIPTORS
    • PHARMACOKINETIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • ORAL ABSORPTION
    • CONCEPT OF DOSE PROPORTIONALITY
    • RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DOSING MEDICATIONS IN OBESE PATIENTS
    • GENETIC AND GENOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 5: THE ROLE OF PHARMACOGENOMICS IN PHARMACOKINETICS

    • INTRODUCTION
    • BASIC DEFINITIONS
    • HISTORY OF PHARMACOGENETICS AND PHARMACOGENOMICS
    • CYTOCHROME P450 ENZYMES AND SOLUTE CARRIER TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEINS
    • IMPACT OF THE BLOOD–BRAIN BARRIER
    • SPECIAL POPULATIONS
    • PHARMACOGENOMIC EXAMPLES IN THERAPEUTICS
    • SUMMARY
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 6: DRUG DOSING IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DISTRIBUTION
    • ELIMINATION
    • METABOLISM
    • FACTORS INFLUENCING DRUG DISPOSITION
    • PHARMACOGENOMICS IN CHILDREN
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 7: THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING IN THE GERIATRIC PATIENT

    • PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES
    • DRUG ELIMINATION
    • AGE-RELATED PHARMACODYNAMIC CHANGES INFLUENCING DRUG RESPONSE
    • SUMMARY OF CHANGES
    • REFERENCES
    • APPENDIX 7-A

SECTION 2 SPECIFIC DRUGS AND DRUG CLASSES

    CHAPTER 8: AMINOGLYCOSIDES

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY 9
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGES
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS 9,48,143
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • PHARMACOGENOMIC IMPLICATIONS OF AMINOGLYCOSIDE USE
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 9: ANTIDEPRESSANTS

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS 6-8
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • FURTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR SAMPLING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 10: ANTIEPILEPTICS

    • FELBAMATE
    • GABAPENTIN
    • LAMOTRIGINE
    • TIAGABINE
    • TOPIRAMATE
    • LEVETIRACETAM
    • OXCARBAZEPINE
    • ZONISAMIDE
    • PREGABALIN
    • LACOSAMIDE
    • RUFINAMIDE
    • VIGABATRIN
    • EZOGABINE
    • CLOBAZAM
    • PERAMPANEL
    • ESLICARBAZEPINE
    • USE OF THE NEWER ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUGS
    • GENERIC SUBSTITUTION OF AEDS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 11: ANTIREJECTION AGENTS

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–GENE INTERACTIONS
    • MOLECULAR WEIGHTS FOR UNIT CONVERSIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 12: CARBAMAZEPINE

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN THE ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 13: DIGOXIN

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE/CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 14: ETHOSUXIMIDE

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 15: UNFRACTIONATED HEPARIN, LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARIN, AND FONDAPARINUX

    • UNFRACTIONATED HEPARIN
    • UFH: USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • UFH: DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • UFH: GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • UFH: THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • UFH: THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • UFH: PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED EFFICACY
    • UFH: PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED TOXICITY
    • REVERSING HEPARIN’S EFFECT
    • UFH: DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • UFH: DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT HEPARINS
    • LMWH: USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN THE ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • LMWH: DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • LMWH: GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • LMWH: DOSING STRATEGIES
    • LMWH: THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • LMWH: THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • LMWH: ASSAY ISSUES
    • LMWH: PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED EFFICACY
    • LMWH: PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED TOXICITY
    • LMWH: REVERSING THE EFFECT OF LMWHs
    • LMWH: DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • LMWH: DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTION
    • FONDAPARINUX
    • FONDAPARINUX: DOSAGE RANGE
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 16: LIDOCAINE

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • CLEARANCE
    • HALF-LIFE AND TIME TO STEADY STATE
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING: CONCENTRATION-RELATED EFFICACY AND TOXICITY
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 17: LITHIUM

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE INTERACTIONS AND SPECIAL POPULATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 18: PHENOBARBITAL

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS 3,4
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • HALF-LIFE AND TIME TO STEADY STATE 1,18-20
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • DRUG MONITORING ASSAY CONSIDERATIONS
    • SUGGESTED SAMPLING TIMES AND EFFECT ON THERAPEUTIC RANGE 3,7
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED EFFICACY
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED TOXICITY 3,7,31-35
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 19: PHENYTOIN AND FOSPHENYTOIN

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY 1-3,10-16
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE 1,54,55
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING 1,3,8,35,56-61
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING 1-3
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 20: THEOPHYLLINE

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS 14
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY 14,19
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE 1,5,14,16,26,45-48
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 21: VALPROATE

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN THE ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • DOSAGE ADJUSTMENT
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • EFFECT OF AGE AND PREGNANCY ON THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • INITIAL AND FOLLOW-UP MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING—CONCENTRATION-RELATED EFFICACY
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 22: VANCOMYCIN

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY 11
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • DOSING STRATEGIES
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE INTERACTIONS
    • ASSAY ISSUES
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 23: WARFARIN

    • USUAL DOSAGE RANGE IN ABSENCE OF CLEARANCE-ALTERING FACTORS
    • DOSAGE FORM AVAILABILITY
    • GENERAL PHARMACOKINETIC INFORMATION
    • THERAPEUTIC RANGE
    • THERAPEUTIC MONITORING
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC MONITORING
    • DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • DRUG–DISEASE STATE OR CONDITION INTERACTIONS
    • REFERENCES

APPENDIX A: THERAPEUTIC RANGES OF DRUGS IN TRADITIONAL AND SI UNITS

APPENDIX B: NONDRUG REFERENCE RANGES FOR COMMON LABORATORY TESTS IN TRADITIONAL AND SI UNITS