Core Curriculum for Urologic Nursing

Author: Diane Newman, DNP, ANP-BC, FAAN, BCB-PMD, Jean Wyman, PhD, CNP, GNP-BC, FAAN, Valre Welch, MSN, CPNP
Affiliation:
Publisher: Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN 10: 1940325285
ISBN 13: 9781940325286
eISBN: 9781940325415
Edition: 1st

Description:

Urologic nursing has changed significantly over the past decade as a result of changes in the nursing profession, advances in science and technology, and transformations in healthcare. The specialty of urology has evolved to meet an increasingly diverse patient population with health needs across the lifespan. Urologic nurses, whether generalists or advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs), have increasingly important and expanded roles in the prevention and management of acute or chronic urological problems. Leadership roles in consumer and professional education, practice administration, quality improvement initiatives and research, and policy advocacy related to urologic issues have strengthened urologic nursing as a specialty area. The content of the Core Curriculum is wide-ranging, covering urologic nursing and health promotion, genitourinary anatomy and physiology, urologic assessment and diagnostic procedures, and management of diverse urologic conditions. A lifespan perspective from in-utero and birth through old age is a unique aspect of the Core Curriculum. The content of the 51 chapters was planned in conjunction with an Advisory Committee of pediatric and adult urologic nursing experts, and was selected to include foundational information, as well as the urologic conditions frequently encountered by urologic practitioners. It also encompasses unique aspects of care from urologic health promotion, care of the surgical patient, and management of patients requiring urologic devices and products. A related Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates publication titled Medications Used in Urologic Nursing Practice was developed concurrently with the Core Curriculum to supplement the content. The Core Curriculum uses an outline format specifically chosen not only to aid readability, but also to provide a consistent approach. Content related to the different urologic diseases and disorders in children and adults follows a similar

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • Off-Label Use
  • preface
  • Message from the SUNA President
  • Foreword
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Editors
  • Chapter Authors
  • Reviewers
  • Preface

Section I Overview of Urologic Nursing

    CHAPTER 1: Urologic Nursing Practice

    • I. Definition of Urologic Nursing
    • II. Practice Characteristics
    • III. Trends and Issues Affecting Urologic Nursing
    • IV. Model of Urologic Nursing Practice
    • V. Scope and Standards of Urologic Nursing Practice (see Figure 1-1, and Tables 1-2 and 1-3)
    • VI. Certification in Urologic Nursing
    • References

    CHAPTER 2: Urologic Health Promotion

    • I. Overview
    • II. Theories and Models of Health Behavior and Health Promotion that Apply to Urologic Health
    • III. Physical Factors Associated with Urologic Health
    • IV. Behavioral/Psychological Factors Associated with Urologic Health
    • V. Cognitive Factors
    • VI. Environmental Factors Associated with Urologic Health
    • VII. Social Factors Associated with Urologic Health
    • VIII. Risk Reduction Strategies for Urologic Nurses
    • IX. Campaigns for Urologic Health
    • References

Section II Urologic Care of Infants and Children

    CHAPTER 3: Embryology and Genitourinary Tract Development

    • I. The Urinary System
    • II. The Genital System
    • Resources

    CHAPTER 4: Assessment of Children

    • I. Overview
    • II. Assessment: Both Sexes
    • III. Physical Examination of a Boy
    • IV. Examination of the Female Genitalia
    • V. Physical Examination of Girls
    • VI. Diagnostic Studies
    • References

    CHAPTER 5: Congenital Anomalies and Malformations of the Upper Urinary Tract

    • Overview
    • Renal Agenesis (RA)
    • Bilateral Renal Agenesis (BRA)
    • Renal Cystic Disease
    • Multicystic Dysplastic Kidney (MCDK)
    • Ectopic Kidney (Simple Renal Ectopia)
    • Renal Fusion
    • Horseshoe Kidney (HSK)
    • Crossed Fused Renal Ectopia (CFRE)
    • Ureteral Duplication
    • Ureterocele
    • References

    CHAPTER 6: Hydronephrosis and Related Obstructive Etiologies

    • Hydronephrosis
    • Obstructive Etiologies Related To Hydronephrosis
    • References

    CHAPTER 7: Congenital Anomalies and Malformations of the Lower Urinary Tract

    • Overview
    • Neurogenic Bladder
    • References

    CHAPTER 8: Disorders of Male Genitalia

    • I. Disorders of the Testes
    • II. Disorders of the Scrotum
    • III. Disorders of the Penis
    • IV. Genital Emergencies
    • References

    CHAPTER 9: Disorders of the Female Genitalia

    • I. Labial Adhesions
    • II. Labial Hypertrophy
    • III. Vulvovaginitis
    • IV. Human Papillomavirus/Condylomata Acuminate
    • V. Clitoral Abnormalities – Clitoromegaly/Clitoral Hypertrophy
    • VI. Prolapsed Ectopic Ureterocele
    • VII. Urethral Abnormalities – Urethral Cysts
    • VIII. Urethral Abnormalities – Urethral Prolapse
    • IX. Urethral Abnormalities – Sarcoma Botryoides
    • X. Vaginal Abnormalities – Vaginal Agenesis
    • XI. Vaginal Abnormalities – Absence of Vaginal Opening/Urogenital Sinus
    • XII. Vaginal Abnormalities – Imperforate Hymen
    • XIII. Vaginal Abnormalities – Trauma/Emergencies
    • XIV. Vaginal Abnormalities – Sexual Abuse
    • References

    CHAPTER 10: Disorders of Sex Development

    • I. Normal Sex Development
    • II. Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)
    • III. Disorders of Gonadal Differentiation (Sex Chromosome DSD)
    • IV. Ovotesticular Disorder of Sex Development (OT-DSD)
    • V. Masculinized Female (46,XX DSD)
    • VI. Under-Masculinized Male (46,XY DSD)
    • VII. Unclassified Forms
    • VIII. Structural Anomalies of the Female Genitalia
    • References

    CHAPTER 11: Reconstructive Surgery for Incontinence

    • I. Overview of Urinary Diversion
    • II. Incontinent Urinary Diversion
    • III. Continent Urinary Diversion (see Table 11-2)
    • References

    CHAPTER 12: Urogenital Cancers and Tumors

    • I. Overview of Genitourinary Cancers in Children
    • II. Wilms’ Tumor (Nephroblastoma)
    • III. Testicular Tumors
    • IV. Adrenocortical Tumors
    • V. Rhabdomyosarcoma (see Table 12-7)
    • VI. Less Common Pediatric Cancers
    • Resources

    CHAPTER 13: Voiding Dysfunction and Enuresis

    • I. Daytime Urinary Incontinence
    • II. Hinman Syndrome (Non-Neurogenic Neurogenic Bladder)
    • III. Nocturnal Enuresis
    • References

    CHAPTER 14: Urinary Tract Infections

    • Urinary Tract Infection
    • Pyelonephritis
    • Urosepsis
    • References

    CHAPTER 15: Pediatric Urinary Stone Disease

    • I. Definition of Urolithiasis
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • IV. Types of Stones
    • V. Clinical Manifestations
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • VIII. Ongoing Follow Up and Surveillance
    • IX. Nursing/Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) Considerations
    • References

Section III Urologic Care of Adults: Assessment

    CHAPTER 16: Genitourinary Anatomy and Physiology

    • Adrenal Gland
    • Upper Urinary Tract – Kidney and Ureters (See Figure 16-2)
    • Lower Urinary Tract (see Figure 16-8)
    • Male Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
    • Female Reproductive Anatomy and Physiology
    • Pelvic Floor (see Figure 16-13)
    • References

    CHAPTER 17: Urologic Signs and Symptoms

    • I. Introduction
    • II. Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS): Table 17-1
    • III. Genitourinary and Pelvic Pain Signs and Symptons: Table 17-2
    • IV. Voiding and Emptying Signs and Symptons: Table 17-3
    • V. Storage and Filling Signs and Symptoms: Table 17-4
    • VI. Post-Micturition Signs and Symptons: Table 17-5.
    • VII. Vaginal Signs and Symptoms: Table 17-6
    • VIII. Penile Signs and Symptoms: Table 17-7
    • IX. Painless Testicular/Scrotal Symptoms: Table 17-8
    • X. Sexual Symptoms: Table 17-9
    • XI. Examination Findings and Incidental Radiographic Findings: Table 17-10
    • XII. Conclusions
    • References

    CHAPTER 18: Assessment of Women

    • I. Introduction
    • II. Terminology
    • III. History
    • IV. Female Genitourinary Physical Examination
    • V. Diagnostic Tests
    • VI. Nursing/Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) Considerations
    • References

    CHAPTER 19: Assessment of Men

    • I. Assessment of the Male Genitalia
    • II. Male Genital Physical Examination
    • III. Kidney, Abdomen, and Suprapubic Examination
    • References

    CHAPTER 20: Laboratory Tests

    • I. Overview
    • II. Urinalysis: Collection and Examination
    • III. Urine for Culture and Sensitivity (Urine C & S)
    • IV. Non-Invasive Urine Screening for Bladder Cancer
    • V. 12- to 24-Hour Urine Collections
    • VI. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)
    • VII. Renal Function Tests
    • VIII. Laboratory Analysis for Male Sexual Dysfunction
    • IX. Complete Blood Count (CBC)
    • X. Testicular Cancer Tumor Markers
    • XI. Serum Drug Levels
    • XII. Serum Evaluation for Urolithaisis
    • XIII. Conclusion
    • References

    CHAPTER 21: Urodynamic Evaluation

    • I. Definitions
    • II. Indications for Multichannel Urodynamic Testing (AUA/SUFU Guideline 2012)
    • III. Hydrodynamic and Mechanical Aspects of Urodynamic Measurements
    • IV. Filling Cystometrogram: Testing Techniques
    • V. Filling Cystometrogram: Generating Interpretable Results
    • VI. Urodynamic Evaluation of Micturition
    • References

    CHAPTER 22: Endoscopic Evaluation

    • I. Overview
    • II. Procedures
    • III. Endoscopic Devices (see Figures 22-1 to 22-17)
    • IV. Accessory Devices
    • V. Role of the APRN
    • VI. Reprocessing Endoscopic Devices
    • References

    CHAPTER 23: Radiology, Imaging, and Interventional Radiology

    • I. Management of Radiation
    • II. Contrast Media
    • III. Plain Abdominal Radiography (Kidney, Ureter, Bladder [KUB], Plain Films)
    • IV. Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP)
    • V. Retrograde Pyelogram/Ureterogram
    • VI. Loopogram
    • VII. Retrograde Urethrography
    • VIII. Static Cystogram
    • IX. Voiding Cystourethrogram (VCUG)
    • X. Renal Ultrasound (RUS)
    • XI. Trans-Abdominal Pelvic Ultrasound
    • XII. Scrotal Ultrasound
    • XIII. Penile Ultrasound
    • XIV. Trans-Rectal Ultrasound of the Prostate (TRUS)
    • XV. Nuclear Scintigraphy (Renal Scan, Nuclear Scan)
    • XVI. Computed Tomography
    • XVII. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • XVIII. Antegrade Pyelogram (Nephrostogram)
    • XIX. Renal Angiogram
    • XX. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
    • XXI. Skeletal Scintigraphy (Whole Body Bone Scan)
    • XXII. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
    • References

Section IV Urologic Care of Adults: Genitourinary Cancers

    CHAPTER 24: Renal and Upper Tract Urothelial Cancers

    • Renal Cell Carcinoma
    • Upper Tract Urothelial Cancers
    • References

    CHAPTER 25: Bladder Cancer

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • V. Clinical Manifestations
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • References

    CHAPTER 26: Urethral Cancer

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • V. Clinical Manifestations
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • VIII. Nursing/Advanced Practice Registered Nursing (APRN) Considerations
    • IX. Role of the APRN
    • References

    CHAPTER 27: Prostate Cancer

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • V. Clinical Manifestations
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • VIII. Nursing/APRN Interventions
    • References

    CHAPTER 28: Penile Cancer

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • V. Clinical Manifestations
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • VIII. Nursing/Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (APRN) Considerations
    • References

    CHAPTER 29: Testicular Cancer

    • I. Testicular Cancer
    • References

Section V Urologic Care of Adults: Urologic Conditions

    CHAPTER 30: Polycystic Kidney Disease

    • I. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)
    • References

    CHAPTER 31: Urinary Stone Disease

    • I. Urolithiasis
    • II. Terminology
    • III. Etiology and Pathophysiology of Stone Formation
    • IV. Clinical Manifestations
    • V. Screening and Evaluation
    • VI. Management
    • VII. Nursing/APRN Considerations
    • References

    CHAPTER 32: Obstructive Uropathy

    • Obstructive Uropathy
    • Upper Urinary Tract Obstruction (see Figure 32-1)
    • Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction
    • References

    CHAPTER 33: Urinary Tract Infections

    • I. Urinary Tract Infection
    • II. Pyelonephritis
    • III. Urosepsis
    • IV. Female Urethral Diverticulum (FUD)
    • References

    CHAPTER 34: Catheters, Devices, Products, and Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    • Urinary Catheters
    • Indwelling Urinary Catheter
    • Intermittent Catheterization
    • External Catheter Systems
    • Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection
    • References

    CHAPTER 35: Urinary Incontinence

    • Urinary Incontinence
    • Stress Urinary Incontinence
    • Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Overactive Bladder
    • Mixed Urinary Incontinence
    • Overflow Incontinence
    • References

    CHAPTER 36: Surgical Interventions for Urinary Incontinence and Overactive Bladder

    • I. Surgical Treatments for Urinary Incontinence and Overactive Bladder
    • II. Surgical Options for Urgency Urinary Incontinence and Overactive Bladder
    • III. OnabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®) Intra-Detrusor Injection
    • IV. Urethral Bulking for Stress Urinary Incontinence
    • V. Surgical Options for Stress Urinary Incontinence in Women
    • VI. Surgical Options for Stress Urinary Incontinence in Men
    • VII. Surgical Options for Stress Urinary Incontinence in Men: Artificial Urinary Sphincter
    • References

    CHAPTER 37: Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    • Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction
    • Urinary Retention
    • References

    CHAPTER 38: Genitourinary Trauma

    • I. Overview
    • II. Kidney Trauma
    • III. Ureteral Trauma
    • IV. Bladder Trauma
    • V. Urethral Injuries
    • VI. Trauma of the External Genitalia
    • References

Section VI Urologic Care of Women

    CHAPTER 39: Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    • I. Overview
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • V. Clinical Manifestations (see Chapter 18)
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • References

    CHAPTER 40: Bladder and Pelvic Pain Syndromes

    • I. Overview
    • II. Principles of Chronic Pain Management
    • III. Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)
    • IV. Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC/BPS)
    • V. Pelvic Floor Tension Myalgia (PFTM)
    • VI. Vulvodynia
    • References

    CHAPTER 41: Sexually Transmitted Infections

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Etiology and Pathophysiology (see Table 41-1)
    • V. Clinical Manifestations
    • VI. Screening and Evaluation
    • VII. Management
    • VIII. Nursing/APRN Interventions
    • References

    CHAPTER 42: Female Sexual Dysfunction

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Terminology
    • IV. Female Sexual Response and Sexual Dysfunction
    • V. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • VI. Clinical Manifestations
    • VII. Screening and Evaluation
    • VIII. Physical Examination
    • IX. Management
    • X. Nursing/APRN Considerations (see Table 42-2)
    • References

Section VII Urologic Care of Men

    CHAPTER 43: Penile and Scrotal Disorders

    • I. Penile Disorders
    • II. Penile Fracture
    • III. Scrotal Disorders (see Table 43-5)
    • References

    CHAPTER 44: Benign Prostate Disease

    • I. Definition
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • IV. Clinical Manifestations
    • V. Screening and Evaluation of BPO
    • VI. Management of BPO/LUTS
    • VII. Nursing/APRN Considerations.
    • References

    CHAPTER 45: Prostatitis and Chronic Pelvic Pain

    • I. Overview
    • II. Acute Prostatitis
    • III. Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
    • IV. Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS)
    • V. Asymptomatic Prostatitis
    • VI. Chronic Orchialgia
    • References

    CHAPTER 46: Sexually Transmitted Infections

    • I. Sexually Transmitted Infections
    • II. Chancroid
    • III. Chlamydia
    • IV. Gonorrhea
    • V. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection (Genital Herpes)
    • VI. Human Papillomavirus Infection (Genital Warts, Condyloma Acuminata)
    • VII. Syphillis
    • References

    CHAPTER 47: Male Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    • I. Erectile Dysfunction
    • II. Priapism
    • III. Ejaculatory Disorders
    • IV. Hypogonadism (Testosterone Deficiency)
    • V. Peyronie’s Disease
    • VI. Male Factor Infertility
    • VII. Vasectomy
    • References

Section VIII Adult Patient Undergoing Urologic Surgery

    CHAPTER 48: Perioperative Care

    • Pre-Operative Care
    • Intraoperative Care
    • References

    CHAPTER 49: Post-Operative Care

    • I. Definition of Post-Operative Care
    • II. Goals of Post-Operative Care
    • III. Goals of Post-Operative Nursing Care
    • IV. Post-Operative Complications
    • V. Role and Responsibilities of the APRN in Post-Operative Care
    • References

Section IX Special Adult Populations

    CHAPTER 50: Urinary Diversions and Urologic Stomas

    • I. Definition
    • II. Indications for Urinary Diversions
    • III. Types of Urinary Diversions
    • IV. Morbidity Associated with Urinary Diversions
    • V. Urinary Tract Infections and Stones in Continent and Incontinent Diversions
    • VI. Continent Diversions
    • VII. Incontinent Diversions
    • VIII. Stomal Complications/Abdominal Wall-Related Changes
    • IX. Nursing/APRN Considerations
    • References

    CHAPTER 51: The Older Urologic Patient

    • I. Demographics of Aging and Relevance to Urologic Nursing
    • II. Common Physiologic Age-Associated Changes that Impact Urologic Care
    • III. Role of the Urologic Nurse/Advanced Practice Registered Nurse in Caring for Older Adults With Urologic Conditions.
    • IV. Caring for Patients with Urologic Conditions in Various Settings
    • V. Issues in Health Promotion for Older Adults
    • VI. Nursing Urologic Assessment and Diagnostic Procedures in Older Adults
    • VII. Common Urological Conditions in the Older Adult
    • VIII. Special Considerations When Planning Urologic Nursing Care of the Older Adult
    • References

List of Abbreviations

appendix