Berkowitz's Pediatrics A Primary Care Approach

Author: Carol Berkowitz, MD, FAAP
Affiliation: University of California Los Angeles
Publisher: American Academy of Pediatrics
Publication Date: 2014
ISBN 10: 158110846X
ISBN 13: 9781581108460
eISBN: 9781581108514
Edition: 5th

Description:

The new 5th edition is custom-built for efficient primary care problem-solving. It provides concise, practice-oriented guidance on all the most common issues -- both clinical and psychosocial -- you're likely to encounter. Here's hands-on help on topics ranging from temper tantrums and thumb-sucking to childhood cancer, kidney disease, and diabetes. Each clinical chapter reviews pertinent epidemiology and pathophysiology, then gives you clear, concise guidelines on what symptoms to look for, what alternative diagnoses to consider, what tests to order, and how to manage your patient.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • Preface
  • Contributors

SECTION I Primary Care: Skills and Concepts

    CHAPTER 1: Primary Care: Introduction

    • Medical Home
    • Role of the Primary Care Pediatrician
    • Subspecialist Care
    • Laboratory Tests
    • Challenges for the Future
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 2: Child Advocacy

    • The New Morbidity
    • Community Pediatrics
    • Levels of Advocacy
    • Becoming a Child Advocate
    • Community Projects
    • Legislative Advocacy
    • Media Advocacy
    • Getting Connected
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 3: Global Child Health

    • Background
    • Integrating Global Health Into Pediatrician Careers
    • Beyond the Hospitals: Global Public and Community Health and Advocacy
    • Ethical Issues in Global Health
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 4: Talking With Children

    • Developmental Approach to Communicating With Children
    • Guidelines for Doctor-Child Communication
    • Children and Health Literacy
    • Barriers to Effective Communication With Children
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 5: Talking With Parents

    • Parental Concerns
    • The Pediatric Interview
    • Communication Guidelines
    • Interview
    • Physical Examination
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Barriers to Effective Communication
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 6: Talking With Adolescents

    • Stages of Adolescence
    • Issues of Confidentiality and Competence
    • Psychosocial Review of Systems
    • Issues That Need Immediate Attention
    • Concluding the Interview
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 7: Telephone Management and E-medicine

    • Telephone Management for Acute Illness
    • Telephone Communication Skills: Establishing Rapport
    • Telephone History Taking
    • Telephone Advice: Communicating Your Assessment and Management Plan
    • Closing the Encounter: Ensuring Appropriate Follow-up
    • Documentation
    • Privacy and Technology Considerations
    • Telephone Management: Preventive Care and Care Coordination
    • E-medicine
    • Conclusions
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 8: Informatics

    • Basic Concepts
    • What Is Informatics?
    • Electronic Health Information Systems
    • Drivers
    • Challenges
    • Pediatric Considerations
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 9: Counseling Families About Internet Use

    • A Brief History of the Internet
    • Internet Services and Concepts
    • Internet Benefits and Access
    • Internet Threats
    • Strategies for Safer Internet Use
    • Adolescents on the Internet
    • Health Information on the Internet
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 10: Cultural Competency Issues in Pediatrics

    • Definition of Culture
    • Health Disparities
    • Cultural Competence
    • Communication
    • Unconscious Bias
    • Eliciting Patients’ Perspectives
    • Decision-making
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 11: Principles of Pediatric Therapeutics

    • Patient Characteristics
    • Diagnosis
    • Safety Profile
    • Patient Compliance
    • Cost-effectiveness
    • Drug Dosing
    • Mediation Errors and Adverse Drug Events
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 12: Pediatric Pain and Symptom Management

    • Pain
    • Management of Non-pain Symptoms (Table 12-3)
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 13: Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Pediatric Primary Care

    • Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
    • Epidemiology
    • Motivations for Using CAM
    • CAM Categories
    • Approaching CAM Use From an Allopathic Perspective
    • Communication About CAM Use
    • Resources
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 14: Principles of Pediatric Surgery

    • Preoperative Care
    • Perioperative Care
    • Postoperative Care
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 15: Image Gently: Approach to Pediatric Imaging

    • Basic Concepts
    • ALARA Principle (As Low as Reasonably Achievable)
    • Role of the Radiologist
    • Available Resources
    • Determining the Appropriate Imaging Study
    • Resources
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 16: Simulation in Pediatric Health Care

    • Simulation in Medicine
    • Technique
    • Benefits of Simulation
    • Conclusion
    • Resources for Physicians
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 17: Pediatric Hospital Medicine

    • Inpatient Pediatric Care
    • Patient Safety and Quality Improvement
    • Transitions of Care
    • Conclusion
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 18: Pediatric Genomic Medicine

    • Epidemiology: Human Genome Anatomy
    • Pathophysiology: The Genotype/Phenotype Correlation and Environment
    • Clinical Presentation/History and Physical Examination
    • Laboratory Testing
    • Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing
    • Treatment: Pharmacogenomics
    • Future Developments
    • Resource
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 19: Principles of Quality Improvement: Improving Health Care for Pediatric Patients

    • History
    • Quality Improvement in Pediatrics
    • Definitions
    • Errors and How They Occur
    • Harm Versus Error
    • Quality Improvement and Organizational Culture
    • Measuring Quality
    • Error Metrics
    • Patient Safety/Error Prevention
    • Conclusions
    • Selected References

SECTION II Health Maintenance and Anticipatory Guidance

    CHAPTER 20: Neonatal Examination and Nursery Visit

    • Pediatric Prenatal Visit
    • Neonatal Nursery Visit
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Discharge Planning and Counseling
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 21: Perinatal Maternal Mood and Anxiety Disorders: The Role of the Pediatrician

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 22: Newborn Screening

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Newborn Screening Practices
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 23: Caring for Twins and Higher-Order Multiples

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Resources for Parents
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 24: Circumcision

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Prognosis
    • Benefits
    • Risks
    • Parent Counseling
    • Management
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 25: Nutritional Needs

    • Growth Patterns and Nutritional Requirements of Normal Children
    • Feeding Patterns of Infants and Children
    • Diet of Children and Adolescents
    • Evaluation
    • Common Feeding and Nutritional Problems of Childhood
    • Resources
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 26: Breastfeeding

    • Epidemiology
    • Anatomy and Physiology of Lactation
    • Benefits of Breastfeeding
    • Barriers to Breastfeeding
    • Contraindications
    • Breastfeeding Management
    • Potential Problems
    • Resources for the Breastfeeding Mother
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 27: Sleep: Normal Patterns and Common Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 28: Oral Health and Dental Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 29: Normal Development and Developmental Surveillance, Screening, and Evaluation

    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 30: Speech and Language Development: Normal Patterns and Common Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 31: Literacy Promotion in Pediatric Practice

    • Consequences of Low Literacy
    • Literacy Promotion in the Medical Office
    • Primary Care Physicians Can Make a Difference
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 32: Gifted Children

    • Epidemiology
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 33: Children and School: A Primer for the Practitioner

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 34: Immunizations

    • General Principles
    • Types of Immunizations
    • Vaccination Schedule
    • Vaccine Recipients
    • Immunizations Received in Other Countries
    • Adverse Events and Vaccine Information
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 35: Health Maintenance in Older Children and Adolescents

    • The Health Maintenance Visit
    • Preparticipation Physical Evaluation for School-aged and Adolescent Athletes
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 36: Health Care for International Adoptees

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Pediatrician’s Role
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 37: Health Care Needs of Children in Foster Care

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Evaluation
    • Immunizations
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 38: Working With Immigrant Children and Their Families

    • Demographics of Immigrant Children
    • Health Care Needs of Immigrant Children
    • General Approach to the Initial Medical Evaluation of an Immigrant Child
    • Cultural and Linguistic Sensitivity
    • Conclusion
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 39: Well-Child Care for Children With Trisomy 21 (Down Syndrome)

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Newborn Period
    • Infancy and Early Childhood
    • Older Childhood and Adolescence
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 40: Well-Child Care for Preterm Infants

    • Epidemiology
    • Evaluation
    • History
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 41: Care of Children With Special Health Care Needs

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 42: Reproductive Health1

    • Normal Secondary Sexual Development
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 43: Providing Culturally Competent Care to Diverse Populations: Sexual Orientation and Gender Expression

    • Incidence
    • Health Consequences of Discrimination
    • Important Role of Pediatricians
    • “Reparative” or Conversion Therapy
    • Children With LGBTQ Parents
    • Child Outcomes
    • How to Be an Ally
    • Online Resources
    • Suggested References

    CHAPTER 44: Injury Prevention

    • Epidemiology
    • Strategies for Injury Prevention
    • Counseling by Pediatricians
    • Recent Recommendations
    • Pediatricians as Advocates
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 45: Fostering Self-esteem

    • Self-esteem: Basic Concepts
    • Research
    • Parental Guidance
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 46: Sibling Rivalry

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 47: Toilet Training

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 48: Crying and Colic

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 49: Discipline

    • Physician-Parent Interactions Concerning Discipline
    • Problem Behaviors
    • Psychophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 50: Temper Tantrums

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 51: Breath-Holding Spells

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 52: Fears, Phobias, and Anxiety

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 53: Thumb Sucking and Other Habits

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 54: Enuresis

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 55: Encopresis

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION III Acute and Emergent Problems

    CHAPTER 56: Fever and Bacteremia

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Acknowledgment
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 57: Emerging Infectious Diseases

    • Introduction
    • Contributing Factors
    • Special Situations
    • Viruses
    • Bacteria
    • Summary
    • Internet Resources
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 58: Febrile Seizures

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 59: Respiratory Distress

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 60: Stridor and Croup

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 61: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Apparent Life-Threatening Events

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology and Risk Factors for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 62: Syncope

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 63: Shock

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 64: Approach to the Traumatized Child

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation and Management
    • Physical Examination
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 65: Abdominal Trauma

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 66: Acute Abdomen (Appendicitis)

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Observation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 67: Head Trauma

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Types of Head Injuries
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Prevention
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 68: Increased Intracranial Pressure

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 69: Management of Dehydration in Children: Fluid and Electrolyte Therapy

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 70: Acute Kidney Injury

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 71: Ingestions: Diagnosis and Management

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Anticipatory Guidance and Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION IV Head, Neck, and Respiratory System

    CHAPTER 72: Approach to the Dysmorphic Child

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 73: Craniofacial Anomalies

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 74: Common Oral Lesions

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 75: Otitis Media

    • Epidemiology
    • Etiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Prevention
    • Management
    • Complications
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 76: Hearing Impairments

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 77: Sore Throat

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 78: Nosebleeds

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 79: Strabismus

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Strabismus
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 80: Infections of the Eye

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 81: Excessive Tearing

    • NASOLACRIMAL DUCT OBSTRUCTION
    • CONGENITAL GLAUCOMA
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 82: Neck Masses

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 83: Allergic Disease

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology and Clinical Presentation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 84: Wheezing and Asthma

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Imaging Studies
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 85: Cough

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION V Hematologic Disorders

    CHAPTER 86: Anemia

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • When to Refer
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 87: Bleeding Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • When to Refer
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 88: Lymphadenopathy

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION VI Cardiovascular System

    CHAPTER 89: Heart Murmurs

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 90: Palpitations

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 91: Cyanosis in the Newborn

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology (Box 91-2)
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 92: Congestive Heart Failure

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 93: Chest Pain

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 94: Hypertension

    • Normal Blood Pressure and Definition of Hypertension
    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Etiology and Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Prevention
    • Selected References

SECTION VII Genitourinary Disorders

    CHAPTER 95: Ambiguous Genitalia

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Treatment
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 96: Inguinal Lumps and Bumps

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 97: Hematuria

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Glomerular Diseases Associated With Hematuria
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 98: Proteinuria

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 99: Urinary Tract Infections

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 100: Vaginitis

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 101: Sexually Transmitted Infections

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 102: Menstrual Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Resource
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 103: Disorders of the Breast

    • Epidemiology
    • Normal Breast Development
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION VIII Orthopedic Disorders

    CHAPTER 104: Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 105: Intoeing and Out-toeing: Rotational Problems of the Lower Extremity

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Intoeing
    • Out-toeing
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 106: Angular Deformities of the Lower Extremity: Bowlegs and Knock-knees

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 107: Orthopedic Injuries and Growing Pains

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation (Dx Box)
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 108: Sports-Related Acute Injuries

    • Epidemiology
    • Preparticipation Physical Evaluation
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 109: Evaluation of Limp

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 110: Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Neck and Back

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION IX Gastrointestinal Disorders

    CHAPTER 111: Vomiting

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 112: Gastroesophageal Reflux

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 113: Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 114: Diarrhea

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 115: Constipation

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 116: Abdominal Pain

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 117: Jaundice

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 118: Viral Hepatitis

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION X Neurologic Disorders

    CHAPTER 119: Hypotonia

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 120: Headaches

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 121: Tics

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION XI Dermatologic Disorders

    CHAPTER 122: Acne

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 123: Disorders of the Hair and Scalp

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 124: Diaper Dermatitis

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 125: Papulosquamous Eruptions

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 126: Morbilliform Rashes

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 127: Vesicular Exanthems

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION XII The New Morbidity

    CHAPTER 128: Autism Spectrum Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Interventions
    • Pharmacotherapy
    • Alternative Treatments
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 129: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 130: Psychopharmacology in Children

    • Psychostimulants
    • Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors
    • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
    • Atypical Antipsychotics (Serotonergic Dopamine Antagonists)
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 131: Physical Abuse

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Prevention
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 132: Sexual Abuse

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Psychophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 133: Failure to Thrive

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 134: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    • Epidemiology
    • Pathophysiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Diagnosis
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 135: Newborns of Substance-Abusing Mothers

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 136: Substance Abuse

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 137: Eating Disorders

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 138: Body Modification: Tattooing and Body Piercing

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Technique, Application, and Safety Standards
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Role of the Primary Care Physician
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 139: Childhood Obesity

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prevention
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 140: Divorce

    • Epidemiology
    • Psychophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 141: School-Related Violence

    • Prevalence and Risk Factors
    • Bullying
    • Role of the Primary Care Physician: Assessment
    • Role of the Primary Care Physician: Prevention
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 142: Intimate Partner Violence

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Prevention
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 143: Disaster Preparedness

    • Pediatricians’ Role With Families
    • Pediatricians’ Role in the Community
    • Pediatricians’ Role in Disaster Surveillance and Management
    • Conclusion
    • Online Resources
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 144: Adolescent Depression and Suicide

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

SECTION XIII Chronic Diseases of Childhood and Adolescence

    CHAPTER 145: Cancer in Children

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation (Table 145-1)
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 146: Chronic Kidney Disease

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical and Biological Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 147: Diabetes Mellitus

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 148: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis and Benign Joint Pains of Childhood

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Pathophysiology
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 149: Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    • Evaluation for Autoimmune Disease: General Considerations
    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
    • Inflammatory Myopathies
    • Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
    • Localized Scleroderma
    • Prognosis
    • References

    CHAPTER 150: Nephrotic Syndrome

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 151: Seizures and Epilepsy

    • Epidemiology
    • Clinical Presentation
    • Pathophysiology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Evaluation (Box 151-2)
    • Management
    • Prognosis
    • Selected References

    CHAPTER 152: Pediatric Palliative Care: Principles and Practice

    • Scope of Pediatric Palliative Care
    • Prognosis, Disclosure, Decision-making
    • The Burden of Suffering and the Power of Hope
    • Barriers to Palliative Care
    • A Child’s Understanding of Death
    • Primary Care at the End of Life: Normal and Extraordinary
    • Loss and After
    • Selected References