Advanced Critical Care Nursing

Author: Vicki Good, DNP, RN, CENP, CPPS, Peggy Kirkwood, MSN, RN, ACNPC, CHFN, AACC
Affiliation:
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Publication Date: 2018
ISBN 10: 1455758752
ISBN 13: 9781455758753
eISBN: 9780323481496
Edition: 2nd

Description:

Learn to effectively address life-threatening and potentially life-threatening patient conditions, with Advanced Critical Care Nursing, 2nd Edition. Endorsed by the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN), this comprehensive, nursing-focused text centers on the clinical reasoning process as it helps you comprehend, analyse, synthesize, and apply advanced critical care knowledge and concepts. The book is organized within the structure of body systems along with synthesis chapters that address patient conditions involving multiple body systems. Numerous illustrations and graphs plus unfolding case studies further aid your understanding and help you apply text content. In all, Advanced Critical Care Nursing is the must-have resource dedicated to helping you oversee or care for critical care patients in any practice setting. Body systems organization emphasizes core systems and advanced concepts. Consistent chapter format features numerous illustrations, charts, and graphs in each chapter to enhance understanding. Synthesis chapters address patient conditions that involve multiple body systems - a common occurrence in critical care nursing. Unfolding case studies with decision point questions are included at the end of all disorders chapters, providing opportunities to apply advanced critical care content to actual scenarios. Medication tables incorporate common classifications of critical care drugs for specific disorders, including drugs, actions, and special considerations.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • Notices
  • Contributors
  • Reviewers
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface

Unit I Introduction

    1: The Critical Care Environment

    • Physical Environment of Care
    • Healthy Work Environment Standards
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit II Cardiac

    2: Advanced Dysrhythmias

    • The Cardiac Action Potential
    • Dysrhythmogenic Mechanisms
    • Supraventricular Tachycardias
    • Ventricular Tachycardias
    • Management of Ventricular Tachycardias
    • Disorders of Repolarization
    • Atrial Fibrillation
    • Heart Rate Variability
    • Monitoring in Critical Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

    3: Acute Coronary Syndromes

    • Acute Coronary Syndrome
    • Pathophysiology
    • Patients at Risk
    • Assessment of Patients with ACS
    • Treatment of ACS
    • ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
    • Interventions in Women with ACS
    • Emergency Interventions
    • Discharge and Long-Term Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

    4: Heart Failure

    • Introduction
    • Heart Failure Defined
    • Pathophysiology of Heart Failure
    • Cardiomyopathy
    • Assessment of the Patient Presenting with Heart Failure
    • Medications used in the Management of Heart Failure
    • Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
    • Treatment of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure
    • Transition from Hospital to Home
    • Chronic Heart Failure
    • Palliation of Stage D Heart Failure Patients
    • Conclusion
    • References

    5: Cardiac Surgery

    • Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
    • Hybrid Coronary Revascularization
    • Ventricular Aneurysm Repair
    • Ventricular Septal Defect
    • Interproffesional Plan of Care
    • Nutrition and Special Considerations
    • Conclusion
    • References

    6: Valvular Disease and Surgery

    • Prevalence
    • Etiology
    • Emerging Trends in Surgical Management of Valvular Heart Disease
    • Aortic Regurgitation
    • Aortic Stenosis
    • Mitral Regurgitation
    • Mitral Stenosis
    • Tricuspid Valve
    • Pulmonic Valve
    • Multivalvular Disease
    • Postoperative Management
    • Patient Education Issues
    • Conclusion
    • References

    7: Vascular Emergencies and Surgery

    • Diseases of the Aorta
    • Treatment Strategies for Aortic Disease
    • Interprofessional Care for Aortic Disease
    • Diseases Involving Arteries and Veins
    • Traumatic Injury of the Peripheral Vasculature
    • Interprofessional Care for Peripheral Vascular Disease
    • Conclusion
    • References

    8: Heart and Lung Transplantation

    • Evaluation and Candidacy for Thoracic Transplantation
    • Surgical Approaches to Thoracic Transplantation
    • Altered Physiology in the Transplanted Heart and Lung
    • The Immune System and Transplantation
    • Immunosuppression
    • Rejection
    • Surgical Complications after Thoracic Transplant
    • General Postoperative Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit III Pulmonary

    9: Acute Respiratory Failure and Acute Lung Injury

    • Acute Respiratory Failure and Acute Lung Injury
    • Definition
    • Mechanism of Hypoxemic Acute Respiratory Failure
    • Mechanisms of Hypercapnic Acute Respiratory Failure
    • Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    • Epidemiology and Risk of Acute Lung Injury/Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    • Diagnostic Evaluations
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care
    • Other Interventions
    • Resolution of Acute Lung Injury and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Suggested Weblinks
    • Consensus Conferences

    10: Mechanical Ventilation and Weaning

    • Volume Versus Pressure Modes
    • Volume Versus Pressure Modes: The Science
    • Ventilator Parameters
    • Invasive Modes of Ventilation
    • Noninvasive Ventilator Modes
    • Respiratory Waveform Monitoring
    • Weaning From Mechanical Ventilation
    • Respiratory Muscle Fatigue, Rest, Work, and Conditioning
    • Modes and Methods of Ventilator Weaning
    • Components of Weaning Protocols
    • Conclusion
    • References

    11: Thoracic Surgery

    • Introduction
    • The Thorax
    • Pulmonary Resection
    • Approaches and Procedures
    • Pleural Surgery
    • Mediastinal Disease
    • Diaphragmatic Surgery
    • Chest Wall Disorders
    • Complications of Thoracic Surgery
    • Interprofessional Care
    • Esophageal Disease
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit IV Nervous System

    12: Head Injury and Dysfunction

    • Applied Physiology
    • Mechanism of Injury
    • Types of Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Pathophysiology
    • Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion
    • Herniation
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care for the Traumatic Brain Injury Patient
    • Monitoring
    • Neuroimaging
    • Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Management of Intracranial Pressure
    • Strategies for Neuroprotection
    • Prevention and Treatment of Complications After Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Other Medications Used for Traumatic Brain Injury
    • Outcomes
    • Conclusion
    • References

    13: Cerebrovascular Disorders

    • Introduction
    • Patients at Risk
    • Prevention
    • Definition
    • Pathophysiology
    • Assessment
    • Management
    • Ischemic Stroke
    • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Intracerebral Hemorrhage
    • Evidence-Based Care
    • Ethical Considerations
    • Conclusion
    • References

    14: Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    • Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
    • Patients at Risk
    • Prevention
    • Definition
    • Applied Pathophysiology
    • Assessment
    • Management
    • Critical Care Management
    • Evidence-Based Care
    • Research
    • Outcomes
    • Ethical Considerations
    • Conclusion
    • References

    15: Special Neurologic Patient Populations

    • Brain Tumor
    • Seizures
    • Meningitis
    • Encephalitis
    • Other Neurologic Diseases
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit V Gastrointestinal

    16: Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    • Applied Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • Prevention
    • Assessment
    • Plan of Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

    17: Liver Dysfunction and Failure

    • Introduction
    • Acute Liver Failure
    • Acute-On-Chronic Liver Dysfunction and Failure
    • Applied Physiology
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care
    • Referral/Listing for Liver Transplantation
    • Liver Support Devices
    • Conclusion
    • References

    18: Acute Pancreatitis

    • Definition
    • Patients at Risk
    • Applied Physiology
    • Assessment of Severity and Early Risk Stratification
    • Diagnosis of Acute Pancreatitis
    • Complications of Acute Pancreatitis
    • Management of Acute Pancreatitis
    • Supportive Care
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Suggested Readings

    19: The Gut in Critical Illness

    • Normal Gastrointestinal Physiology
    • Alterations to Normal Gastrointestinal Physiology in Critical Illness
    • Gastric Tonometry
    • Stress-Related Mucosal Disease in Critically Ill Patients
    • Stress-Related Mucosal Disease: Prophylaxis
    • Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
    • Conclusion
    • References

    20: Liver, Kidney, and Pancreas Transplantation

    • Introduction
    • Liver Transplantation
    • Renal Transplantation
    • Kidney-Pancreas or Pancreas-Only Transplantation
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit VI Renal

    21: Electrolyte Emergencies

    • Applied Physiology
    • Potassium
    • Sodium
    • Calcium
    • Magnesium
    • Phosphorus
    • Conclusion
    • References

    22: Complex Acid-Base Disorders and Associated Electrolyte Imbalances

    • Acid-Base Physiology
    • Primary Acid-Base Disorders
    • Metabolic Alkalosis
    • Respiratory Acidosis
    • Respiratory Alkalosis
    • Mixed Acid-Base Disorders
    • Conclusion
    • References

    23: Acute Kidney Injury

    • Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury
    • Definition
    • Applied Pathophysiology
    • Assessment
    • Interventions
    • Renal Replacement Therapy
    • Nutrition in Acute Kidney Injury with Renal Replacement Therapy
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care
    • On the Horizon
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit VII Endocrine

    24: Glycemic Control

    • Patients at Risk
    • Definition
    • Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
    • Physiology of Glucose Metabolism
    • Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperglycemia
    • Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus
    • Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Hypoglycemia
    • Patient and Family Education
    • Conclusion
    • References

    25: Pituitary, Thyroid, and Adrenal Disorders

    • Applied Pathophysiology
    • Disorders of Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Thyroid Gland Disorders
    • Adrenal Insuffiency in Critical Illness
    • References

Unit VIII Hematologic

    26: Blood Conservation and Blood Component Replacement

    • Controversies in Transfusion
    • Blood Conservation
    • Alternatives to Transfusion
    • Blood Component Review
    • Blood Component Modification
    • Considerations in Blood Transfusion
    • Adverse Effects Related to Transfusion of Blood Components
    • Conclusion
    • References

    27: Coagulopathies

    • Normal Hemostasis and the Pathways to a Clot
    • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
    • Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy
    • Postoperative Coagulopathy
    • Medication-Induced Coagulopathy
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
    • Excessive Fibrinolysis
    • Bleeding Associated with Liver Disease
    • Bleeding Associated with Uremia
    • Bleeding Associated with Head Injury
    • Hypercoagulbility States
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit IX Multisystem

    28: Shock and End Points of Resuscitation

    • Introduction
    • History of Shock
    • Cellular Metabolism and Dysfunction During Shock
    • Oxygen Delivery, Consumption, and Debt
    • Classifications of Shock
    • General Phases of Shock
    • Resuscitation Measures in Shock
    • End Points of Resuscitation
    • Regional Resuscitation End Points
    • Nutritional Support in Shock
    • Complications of Shock
    • Conclusion
    • References

    29: Optimizing Hemodynamics: Strategies for Fluid and Medication Titration in Hypoperfusion States

    • Hypoperfusion States and Systemic Responses
    • Monitoring Hemodynamic Measures
    • Identifying and Interpreting Hemodynamic Measures
    • Shock-Specific Therapy
    • Titratable Medications Used in Managing Shock
    • Nursing Care of the Hypoperfused Patient
    • Conclusion
    • References

    30: Trauma

    • Introduction
    • Mechanism of Injury
    • Blunt Trauma
    • Applied Pathophysiology
    • Pathophysiology of Specific Injuries
    • Assessment and Intervention
    • Early Critical Care Resuscitation
    • Critical Care Management of Complications Following Trauma
    • Conclusion
    • References

    31: Sepsis and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome

    • Definitions and Patient Identification
    • Epidemiology of Sepsis and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
    • Pathophysiology of Sepsis
    • Pathophysiology of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
    • Mechanisms of Organ Dysfunction in Mods
    • Assessment of Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
    • Interventions
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit X Special Patient Populations

    32: Caring for the Immunocompromised Patient

    • Introduction
    • Definitions
    • Patients at Risk
    • Assessment
    • Infection Prevention
    • Enhancement of Immune Function
    • Treatment of Infection
    • Conclusion
    • References

    33: Caring for the Patient in the Immediate Postoperative Period

    • Patients at Risk for Postoperative Complications
    • Overview of Anesthesia and The Anesthetic Agents
    • General Anesthesia
    • Intravenous Agents
    • Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
    • Regional Anesthesia
    • Patient Transfer to the Perianesthesia Care Unit or Critical Care Unit from the Operating Room
    • Conclusion
    • References

    34: Caring for the Critically Ill Pregnant Patient

    • Introduction
    • Pregnancy and Critical Illness
    • Normal Physiologic Changes in Pregnancy
    • Monitoring of the Critically Ill Obstetric Patient
    • Postdelivery Care
    • Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy
    • Pulmonary Dysfunction in Pregnancy
    • Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy
    • Trauma in Pregnancy
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Suggested Readings

    35: Caring for the Pediatric Patient in an Adult Critical Care Unit

    • Introduction
    • Levels of Picu Care
    • Models of Co-Residence
    • Regionalization of Care
    • Standardizing Care for Children
    • Pediatric Resuscitation Priorities
    • Nutrition
    • Child and Family-Centered Care
    • Quality Monitoring
    • Infection Prevention
    • The Child’s Response to Critical Care
    • Considerations in Pediatric Care
    • Pain in Children
    • Intentional Injuries in the Pediatric Patient
    • Parental Permission and Child Assent
    • Transitions for the Child and Family in Critical Care
    • Competent Pediatric Intensive Care Nursing
    • Conclusion
    • References

    36: Caring for the Critically Ill Elderly Patient

    • The Aging Population
    • Factors that Influence Aging
    • The Geriatric Critical Care Patient
    • Cardiovascular System
    • Respiratory System
    • Neurologic System
    • Musculoskeletal System
    • Integumentary System
    • Urinary System
    • Gastrointestinal System
    • Endocrine/Metabolic System
    • Thermoregulation
    • Drug Metabolism
    • Psychosocial and Functional Factors
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

    37: Caring for the Critically Ill Patient With a Neuropsychiatric Disorder

    • Introduction
    • Definitions
    • At-Risk Patients
    • Neurochemical Deficiencies
    • Central Nervous System Excesses
    • Interprofessional Plan of Care
    • Conclusion
    • References

    38: Caring for the Bariatric Patient

    • Defining and Classifying Obesity
    • Causes of Obesity
    • The Pathophysiology of Obesity
    • Physiologic Consequences of Obesity
    • Treatment of Obesity
    • Management of the Critically Ill Obese Patient
    • Conclusion
    • References

Unit XI Special Considerations In Critical Care

    39: Pain and Sedation

    • Patients at Risk
    • Acute Versus Chronic Pain
    • Response to Pain
    • Measuring and Assessing Pain
    • Management of Pain and Discomfort
    • Assessment and Management of Sedation
    • Neuromuscular Blockade
    • Conclusion
    • References

    40: Comorbid Conditions

    • Introduction
    • Critical Care Predictive Scoring Systems
    • Comorbidities used in Scoring Systems
    • Other Comorbidities as Predictors of Outcome
    • Care of Patients with Multiple Comorbidities
    • Conclusion
    • References

    41: Oncologic Emergencies

    • Hypercalcemia of Malignancy
    • Acute Tumor Lysis Syndrome
    • Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
    • Spinal Cord Compression
    • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
    • Cardiac Tamponade
    • Conclusion
    • References

    42: Chemical Dependency

    • Prevalence of Substance use Disorders
    • Substance use Disorders Defined
    • Addiction
    • Pathophysiology of Chemical Dependence
    • Kindling Phenomenon
    • Patient Assessment (Physical Examination)
    • Diagnostic Testing
    • Tools to Diagnose
    • Diagnosis of Substance use Disorder
    • Management of Substance use Disorders and Withdrawal
    • Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
    • Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome
    • Supportive Care
    • Medical Sequelae of Substance use
    • Psychiatric Disorders and Addiction
    • Special Populations
    • Discharge Planning
    • Conclusion
    • References
    • Internet Resources

    43: Palliative and End-of-Life Care

    • End-of-Life Considerations
    • Ethical Palliative and End-of-Life Care
    • Palliative Symptom Management
    • Caring for and Supporting Families
    • Preparing for the End-of-Life
    • Care During the Dying Process
    • Bereavement
    • End-of-Life and the Critical Care Nurse
    • Conclusion
    • References

Appendix: Answers to Decision Point Questions