Core Curriculum for Neonatal Intensive Care Nursing

Author: M. Verklan, PhD, CCNS, RNC, FAAN, Marlene Walden, PhD, RN, NNP-BC, CCNS
Affiliation: School of Nursing, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Publication Date: 2015
ISBN 10: 032322590X
ISBN 13: 9780323225908
eISBN: 9780323265010
Edition: 5th

Description:

Perfect as a resource in the field or for exam preparation, this authoritative reference from the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric, and Neonatal Nurses (AWHONN) includes in-depth coverage of the most common neonatal disorders and their management. The concise outline format highlights the essentials of each condition including definition, etiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostic tests, treatments, and outcomes to help you find important information quickly.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • Notices
  • Foreword
  • DEDICATION
  • Contributors
  • Reviewers
  • Preface

SECTION ONE ANTEPARTUM, INTRAPARTUM, AND TRANSITION TO EXTRAUTERINE LIFE

    CHAPTER 1: Uncomplicated Antepartum, Intrapartum, and Postpartum Care

    • TERMINOLOGY
    • NORMAL MATERNAL PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES BY SYSTEMS
    • ANTEPARTUM CARE
    • NORMAL LABOR AND BIRTH
    • PUERPERIUM: “FOURTH TRIMESTER”
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 2: Antepartum–Intrapartum Complications

    • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    • CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE ANTEPARTUM PERIOD
    • CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE INTRAPARTUM PERIOD
    • OBSTETRIC ANALGESIA AND ANESTHESIA
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 3: Perinatal Substance Abuse

    • OVERVIEW
    • PRECONCEPTION COUNSELING AND INTERVENTIONS (AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS [AAP] AND THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF OBSTETRICIANS AND GYNECOLOGISTS [ACOG], 2012)
    • TREATMENT APPROACHES FOR PREGNANT WOMEN (AAP AND ACOG, 2012)
    • MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF DRUGS ON THE FETUS (BEHNKE AND SMITH, 2013)
    • IDENTIFICATION OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE
    • MEDICAL ISSUES IN THE FETAL AND NEWBORN PERIOD
    • NEONATAL DRUG WITHDRAWAL AND ACUTE TOXICITY
    • NEONATAL NARCOTIC ABSTINENCE SYNDROME
    • COCAINE AND OTHER STIMULANTS (HUDAK AND TAN, 2012)
    • OPIOIDS (HUDAK AND TAN, 2012)
    • CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF OPIOID WITHDRAWAL (HUDAK AND TAN, 2012)
    • PRETERM INFANTS AND DRUG WITHDRAWAL (HUDAK AND TAN, 2012)
    • ASSESSMENT OF WITHDRAWAL
    • NONPHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT
    • PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT (KRAFT AND VAN DEN ANKER, 2012)
    • ACQUIRED OPIOID AND BENZODIAZEPINE DEPENDENCY
    • SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (HUDAK AND TAN, 2012)
    • LONG-TERM EFFECTS RELATED TO PRENATAL DRUG EXPOSURE (BEHNKE AND SMITH, 2013)
    • BREASTFEEDING AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE (AAP, 2012)
    • DISCHARGE AND FOLLOW-UP CARE (HUDAK AND TAN, 2012)
    • RESUMPTION OF SUBSTANCE USE AMONG RECENT MOTHERS
    • FUTURE THERAPIES
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 4: Adaptation to Extrauterine Life

    • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    • ROUTINE CARE CONSIDERATIONS DURING TRANSITION (GARDNER AND HERNANDEZ, 2011; ALDEN, 2012A; ALDEN 2012B; TAYLOR, WRIGHT, AND WOODRUM, 2013)
    • RECOGNITION OF THE SICK NEWBORN INFANT
    • PARENT TEACHING
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 5: Neonatal Delivery Room Resuscitation

    • DEFINITIONS
    • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    • RISK FACTORS
    • ANTICIPATION OF AND PREPARATION FOR RESUSCITATION
    • EQUIPMENT FOR NEONATAL RESUSCITATION
    • APGAR SCORING
    • DECISION-MAKING PROCESS
    • UNUSUAL SITUATIONS
    • COMPLICATIONS OF RESUSCITATION
    • POSTRESUSCITATION CARE
    • REFERENCES

SECTION TWO CORNERSTONES OF CLINICAL PRACTICE

    CHAPTER 6: Thermoregulation

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF THERMOREGULATION
    • MANAGEMENT OF THE THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 7: Physical Assessment

    • PERINATAL HISTORY (SEE CHAPTERS 1, 2, 3, AND 4)
    • GESTATIONAL-AGE INSTRUMENTS
    • CLASSIFICATION OF GROWTH AND MATURITY
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 8: Fluid and Electrolyte Management

    • FLUID BALANCE
    • DISORDERS OF FLUID BALANCE
    • ELECTROLYTE BALANCE AND DISORDERS
    • ACID–BASE BALANCE AND DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 9: Glucose Management

    • GLUCOSE HOMEOSTASIS
    • HYPOGLYCEMIA
    • INFANT OF DIABETIC MOTHER
    • HYPERGLYCEMIA
    • TRANSIENT OR PERMANENT NEONATAL DIABETES
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 10: Nutritional Management

    • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PREMATURE INFANT’S GI TRACT
    • NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
    • PARENTERAL NUTRITION (KLEINMAN AND AAP COMMITTEE ON NUTRITION, 2009; POINDEXTER AND DUNNE, 2012)
    • ENTERAL FEEDINGS: HUMAN MILK AND COMMERCIAL FORMULAS FOR TERM, SPECIAL-NEEDS, AND PREMATURE INFANTS
    • ENTERAL FEEDING METHODS
    • NURSING INTERVENTIONS TO FACILITATE TOLERANCE OF ENTERAL FEEDINGS
    • NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT AND STANDARDS FOR ADEQUATE GROWTH
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 11: Developmental Support

    • EARLY EXPERIENCE
    • WHAT IS DEVELOPMENTAL CARE?
    • OPERATIONALIZING DEVELOPMENTAL CARE
    • DEVELOPMENTALLY SUPPORTIVE ENVIRONMENT
    • DEVELOPMENTAL CARE PRACTICES
    • PARENT SUPPORT AND INVOLVEMENT
    • TEAMWORK AND CONTINUITY OF CARE
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 12: Pharmacology

    • PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY
    • PHARMACODYNAMICS
    • PHARMACOKINETICS
    • MEDICATION CATEGORIES
    • NURSING IMPLICATIONS FOR MEDICATION ADMINISTRATION IN THE NEONATE
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 13: Laboratory and Diagnostic Test Interpretation

    • LABORATORY TESTS IN THE NICU
    • PURPOSE OF LABORATORY TESTING
    • PROCESS OF LABORATORY COLLECTION
    • CONCEPTS OF LABORATORY TEST INTERPRETATION
    • PRINCIPLES OF TEST UTILIZATION
    • IATROGENIC SEQUELAE OF LABORATORY TESTING—PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES
    • DECISION—QUESTIONS TO ASK PRIOR TO OBTAINING A LABORATORY TEST
    • LABORATORY INTERPRETATION—DECISION TREE
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 14: Radiologic Evaluation

    • BASIC CONCEPTS
    • TERMINOLOGY
    • X-RAY VIEWS COMMONLY USED IN THE NEWBORN INFANT (FIG. 14-1)
    • RADIOGRAPHIC DENSITIES
    • RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH RADIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION IN THE NEONATE
    • APPROACH TO INTERPRETING AN X-RAY
    • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • PULMONARY PARENCHYMAL DISEASE
    • PULMONARY AIR LEAKS
    • MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
    • THORACIC SURGICAL PROBLEMS
    • CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    • GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
    • SKELETAL SYSTEM
    • INDWELLING LINES AND TUBES
    • DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 15: Common Invasive Procedures

    • AIRWAY PROCEDURES
    • CIRCULATORY ACCESS PROCEDURES
    • BLOOD SAMPLING PROCEDURES
    • MISCELLANEOUS PROCEDURES
    • SIMULATION
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 16: Pain Assessment and Management

    • DEFINITION OF PAIN
    • NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT PROCEDURES THAT CAUSE PAIN
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF ACUTE PAIN IN PRETERM NEONATES
    • STANDARDS OF PRACTICE
    • PAIN ASSESSMENT
    • PAIN ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
    • NURSING CARE OF THE INFANT IN PAIN
    • PAIN MANAGEMENT AT END OF LIFE
    • PARENTS’ ROLE IN PAIN ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 17: Families in Crisis

    • CRISIS AND THE BIRTH OF THE SICK OR PREMATURE INFANT
    • SPECIFIC POPULATION OF PARENTS: ADOLESCENTS
    • THE FAMILY IN CRISIS
    • GRIEF AND LOSS
    • SUMMARY OF PARENTAL NEEDS TO BE MET BY NICU STAFF
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 18: Patient Safety

    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 19: Discharge Planning and Transition to Home Care

    • INTRODUCTION
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • HEALTH CARE TRENDS
    • DISCHARGE CRITERIA MUST BE ESTABLISHED AND INDIVIDUALIZED TO THE INFANT AND FAMILY (BOX 19-2)
    • PARENTAL NEEDS AND ROLE IN THE DISCHARGE AND TRANSITION-TO-HOME PROCESS
    • DISCHARGE PLANNING AND TRANSITION TO HOME
    • NEONATAL TEACHING NEEDS
    • FAMILY AND INFANT CARE POSTDISCHARGE (BOX 19-9)
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 20: Genetics: From Bench to Bedside

    • BASIC GENETICS
    • CHROMOSOMAL DEFECTS
    • PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS
    • POSTNATAL TESTING
    • HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
    • GENETIC COUNSELING
    • NEWBORN CARE
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 21: Intrafacility and Interfacility Neonatal Transport

    • HISTORICAL ASPECTS
    • PHILOSOPHY OF NEONATAL TRANSPORT
    • INTRAFACILITY NEONATAL TRANSPORT (AAP, 2007; DEMMONS AND JAMES, 2008; NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF NEONATAL NURSES, 2010a; SALYER, 2003)
    • INTERFACILITY NEONATAL TRANSPORT
    • TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT (GERSHANIK, 2006; ORLANDO ET AL., 2007)
    • NEONATAL TRANSPORT PROCESS (AAP, 2007; DEMMONS AND JAMES, 2008; NANN, 2010a; SALYER, 2003)
    • DOCUMENTATION
    • SAFETY (AAP, 2007; AIR AND SURFACE TRANSPORT NURSES ASSOCIATION, 2011; CAMTS, 2012; DEMMONS AND JAMES, 2008)
    • DISASTER PREPARATION (GERSHANIK, 2006; ORLANDO ET AL., 2007)
    • AIR TRANSPORT CONSIDERATIONS
    • LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • QUALITY MANAGEMENT (CAMTS, 2012; NANN, 2010a)
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 22: Care of the Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) Infant

    • OVERVIEW
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY (CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION [CDC], 2013; MARCH OF DIMES, 2013)
    • MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY (AAP AND ACOG, 2012)
    • PERINATAL MANAGEMENT (AAP AND ACOG, 2012)
    • PERINATAL CONSULTATION (AAP AND ACOG, 2012)
    • ANTENATAL STEROIDS
    • TIMING OF UMBILICAL CORD CLAMPING AFTER BIRTH (AAP, 2013)
    • DELIVERY ROOM CARE SPECIFIC TO ELBW INFANTS
    • THERMOREGULATION (SEE CHAPTER 6) (AAP AND ACOG, 2012)
    • VENTILATORY PRACTICES IN THE DELIVERY ROOM (AAP AND ACOG, 2012)
    • ADMISSION TO THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
    • VASCULAR ACCESS (SEE CHAPTER 15)
    • SKIN CARE (SEE CHAPTER 36)
    • ASSISTED VENTILATION (SEE CHAPTER 26)
    • NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT (SEE CHAPTERS 8 AND 10) (DELL, 2011)
    • MANAGEMENT AND PREVENTION OF INFECTION (SEE CHAPTER 32)
    • NEUROSENSORY COMPLICATIONS (EICHENWALD, 2012)
    • DEVELOPMENTAL INTERVENTIONS (EICHENWALD, 2012) (SEE CHAPTER 11)
    • END-OF-LIFE CARE
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 23: Care of the Late Preterm Infant

    • REFERENCES

SECTION THREE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT OF COMMON DISORDERS

    CHAPTER 24: Respiratory Distress

    • LUNG DEVELOPMENT
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATION
    • RESPIRATORY DISORDERS
    • PULMONARY AIR LEAKS (PNEUMOMEDIASTINUM, PNEUMOTHORAX, PNEUMOPERICARDIUM, PULMONARY INTERSTITIAL EMPHYSEMA)
    • PULMONARY HYPOPLASIA
    • PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE
    • OTHER CAUSES OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 25: Apnea

    • DEFINITIONS OF APNEA
    • TYPES OF APNEA
    • PATHOGENESIS OF APNEA IN THE PREMATURE INFANT
    • CAUSES OF APNEA
    • EVALUATION FOR APNEA
    • MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES
    • HOME MONITORING
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 26: Assisted Ventilation

    • PHYSIOLOGY
    • TREATMENT MODALITIES
    • NURSING CARE OF THE PATIENT REQUIRING RESPIRATORY SUPPORT OR CONVENTIONAL MECHANICAL VENTILATION
    • HIGH-FREQUENCY VENTILATION
    • NURSING CARE DURING THERAPY
    • MEDICATIONS USED DURING VENTILATION THERAPY
    • WEANING FROM CONVENTIONAL VENTILATION
    • INTERPRETATION OF BLOOD GAS VALUES
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 27: Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    • ECMO: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • COMMON NEONATAL ECMO PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • CRITERIA FOR USE OF ECMO
    • ECMO PERFUSION TECHNIQUES
    • CIRCUIT COMPONENTS AND ADDITIONAL DEVICES
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION
    • CARE OF THE INFANT REQUIRING ECMO
    • POST-ECMO CARE
    • PARENTAL SUPPORT
    • FOLLOW-UP AND OUTCOME
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 28: Cardiovascular Disorders

    • CARDIOVASCULAR EMBRYOLOGY AND ANATOMY
    • CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS
    • RISK ASSESSMENT AND APPROACH TO DIAGNOSIS OF CARDIAC DISEASE
    • DEFECTS WITH INCREASED PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW
    • OBSTRUCTIVE DEFECTS WITH PULMONARY VENOUS CONGESTION
    • OBSTRUCTIVE DEFECTS WITH DECREASED PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW
    • MIXED DEFECTS
    • CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARDIAC MANAGEMENT
    • POSTOPERATIVE DISTURBANCES
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 29: Gastrointestinal Disorders

    • GASTROINTESTINAL EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT
    • FUNCTIONS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
    • ASSESSMENT OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
    • ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECTS (CHRISTISON-LAGAY ET AL., 2011; ISLAM, 2012; LEDBETTER, 2012)
    • OBSTRUCTIONS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
    • NECROTIZING ENTEROCOLITIS (CILIEBORG ET AL., 2012; DOMINQUEZ AND MOSS, 2012; DOWNARD ET AL., 2012; NEU AND WALKER, 2011)
    • SHORT-BOWEL SYNDROME (AMIN ET AL., 2013; GOULET ET AL., 2013; LIGHTDALE ET AL., 2013)
    • BILIARY ATRESIA (BRUMBAUGH AND MACK, 2012; DAVENPORT, 2012; WILDHABER, 2012)
    • CHOLESTASIS (BRUMBAUGH AND MACK, 2012; GOSSARD, 2013; HARTLEY ET AL., 2013)
    • GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX (AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS, TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME, AND MOON, 2011; BLACKBURN, 2013; CZINN AND BLANCHARD, 2013; LIGHTDALE ET AL., 2013)
    • MULTISYSTEM DISORDERS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL INVOLVEMENT (HASSETT ET AL., 2012; LESAVOY ET AL., 2012; WOODS AND BRANDON, 2007; ZUGOR ET AL., 2012)
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 30: Endocrine Disorders

    • THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • PITUITARY GLAND DISORDERS
    • THYROID GLAND DISORDERS
    • ADRENAL GLAND DISORDERS
    • SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT
    • DISORDERS OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT
    • PANCREAS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 31: Hematologic Disorders

    • DEVELOPMENT OF BLOOD CELLS
    • COAGULATION
    • ANEMIA
    • HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE OF THE NEWBORN
    • DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION
    • THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    • POLYCYTHEMIA
    • INHERITED BLEEDING DISORDERS
    • TRANSFUSION THERAPIES
    • EVALUATION BY COMPLETE BLOOD CELL COUNT
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 32: Infectious Diseases in the Neonate

    • TRANSMISSION OF INFECTIOUS ORGANISMS IN THE NEONATE
    • RISK FACTORS
    • DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
    • NEONATAL SEPTICEMIA
    • INFECTION WITH SPECIFIC PATHOGENS
    • INFECTION CONTROL
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 33: Renal and Genitourinary Disorders

    • OVERVIEW
    • FETAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE KIDNEY
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE BLADDER AND URETHRA (VOGT AND DELL, 2011)
    • RENAL FUNCTION
    • RENAL ANATOMY
    • REGULATION OF POSTNATAL RENAL HEMODYNAMICS (SOLHAUG AND JOSE, 2011)
    • CLINICAL EVALUATION OF RENAL AND URINARY TRACT DISEASE (VOGT AND DELL [2011])
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION OF RENAL FUNCTION
    • RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION (VOGT AND DELL, 2011)
    • ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
    • RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS
    • DEVELOPMENTAL RENAL ABNORMALITIES
    • DISORDERS OF THE GENITALIA
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 34: Neurologic Disorders

    • ANATOMY OF THE NEUROLOGIC SYSTEM (MOORE ET AL. 2012; VOLPE, 2008)
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEUROLOGIC SYSTEM (McLEAN ET AL., 2012; VOLPE, 2008; YAGER, 2012)
    • NEUROLOGIC ASSESSMENT (RENNIE AND HUERTAS-CEBALLOS, 2012; VOLPE, 2008)
    • NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS (NTDs)
    • NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS
    • INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES
    • SEIZURES (SCHER, 2012, 2013; VERKLAN AND LOPEZ, 2011)
    • HYPOXIC–ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY (BONIFACIO ET AL., 2012; LAPTOOK, 2012; SCHER 2013; VERKLAN AND LOPEZ, 2011)
    • PERIVENTRICULAR LEUKOMALACIA (SCHER, 2013)
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 35: Congenital Anomalies

    • SPECIFIC DISORDERS
    • NONCHROMOSOMAL ABNORMALITIES
    • DEFORMATION ABNORMALITIES
    • CONGENITAL METABOLIC PROBLEMS
    • DISORDERS OF METABOLISM
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 36: Neonatal Dermatology

    • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SKIN
    • CARE OF THE NEWBORN INFANT’S SKIN
    • ASSESSMENT OF THE NEWBORN INFANT’S SKIN
    • COMMON SKIN LESIONS
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 37: Ophthalmologic and Auditory Disorders

    • ANATOMY OF THE EYE (FIG. 37-1)
    • PATIENT ASSESSMENT
    • PATHOLOGIC CONDITIONS AND MANAGEMENT
    • ANATOMY OF THE EAR (FIG. 37-3)
    • INNERVATION
    • PATIENT ASSESSMENT
    • REFERENCES

SECTION FOUR PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE

    CHAPTER 38: Foundations of Neonatal Research

    • RESEARCH AND GENERATION OF NURSING KNOWLEDGE
    • RESEARCH PROCESS AND COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH STUDY
    • QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
    • QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
    • AREAS OF EXPLORATION IN NEONATAL NURSING
    • NURSES AS CONSUMERS OF RESEARCH
    • ETHICS IN RESEARCH AND NURSES AS ADVOCATES
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 39: Ethical Issues

    • EXAMINING ETHICAL ISSUES IN THE NICU
    • PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL ETHICS
    • OTHER APPROACHES TO ETHICAL ISSUES
    • CASE ANALYSIS MODEL
    • THE NURSE’S ROLE IN ETHICAL ISSUES
    • CONSULTING THE HOSPITAL ETHICS COMMITTEE
    • SUMMARY
    • REFERENCES

    CHAPTER 40: Legal Issues

    • NURSING PROCESS
    • STANDARD OF CARE
    • MALPRACTICE
    • LIABILITY
    • ADVANCED PRACTICE
    • DOCUMENTATION
    • INFORMED CONSENT
    • PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY INSURANCE
    • REFERENCES

APPENDIX A Newborn Metric Conversion Tables