Biomarkers of Kidney Disease

Author: Charles Edelstein, MD, PhD
Publisher: Elsevier Science and Technology
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN 10: 0128030143
ISBN 13: 9780128030141
eISBN: 9780128030356
Edition: 2nd


Biomarkers of Kidney Disease, Second Edition, focuses on the basic and clinical research of biomarkers in common kidney diseases, detailing the characteristics of an ideal biomarker. The latest techniques for biomarker detection, including metabolomics and proteomics are covered in the book. This comprehensive book details the latest advances made in the field of biomarker research and development in kidney diseases. The book is an ideal companion for those interested in biomarker research and development, proteomics and metabolomics, kidney diseases, statistical analysis, transplantation, and preeclampsia. New chapters include biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in patients with CKD, biomarkers of Polycystic Kidney Disease, and biomarkers and the role of nanomedicine.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • Notices
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface

CHAPTER ONE: Characteristics of an Ideal Biomarker of Kidney Diseases

  • The Discovery of Biomarkers
  • Characteristics of an Ideal Biomarker
  • Biomarkers in AKI
  • Biomarkers in CKD
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • References

CHAPTER TWO: Statistical Considerations in Analysis and Interpretation of Biomarker Studies

  • Introduction
  • Planning a Study
  • Metrics for Prediction Performance
  • Sample-Size Calculations
  • Evaluating Incremental Value
  • Summary
  • References

CHAPTER THREE: The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Kidney Diseases and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools

  • Introduction
  • Metabolic Mapping of the Kidney
  • Nontargeted and Targeted Metabolomics
  • The Sample
  • Analytical Technologies
  • Metabolic Molecular Marker Discovery and Development
  • Metabolomics in Renal Research: Kidney Function, Disease, and Injury Markers
  • Metabolomics as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool in Nephrology
  • References

CHAPTER FOUR: The Role of Proteomics in the Study of Kidney Diseases and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools

  • Introduction
  • Nontargeted and Targeted Proteomics
  • Proteins and the Kidney
  • The Proteomics Sample
  • Analytical Technologies
  • Proteomics in Renal Research and as a Marker for Kidney Function, Disease, and Injury
  • Proteomics as Clinical Diagnostic Tool in Nephrology
  • References

CHAPTER FIVE: Cystatin C as a Multifaceted Biomarker in Kidney Disease and Its Role in Defining “Shrunken Pore Syndrome”

  • Factors Influencing the Diagnostic Performance of Cystatin C- or Creatinine-Based GFR-Estimating Equations and Causing the Plethora of Equations: The Concepts of “Internal” or “External” Validation
  • Optimizing the Use of Cystatin C- and Creatinine-Based GFR-Estimating Equations
  • Cystatin C and Creatinine (eGFRcystatin C and eGFRcreatinine) as Markers of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), Hospitalization, Cardiovascular Disease, and Death
  • Identification of “Shrunken Pore Syndrome”: Its Influence on Mortality
  • Cystatin C as an Indictor of the Circadian Rhythm of GFR
  • Cystatin C as an Indicator of “Renal Reserve”
  • References

CHAPTER SIX: Biomarkers in Acute Kidney Injury

  • Introduction
  • Definition and Classification of AKI
  • Serum Creatinine in AKI
  • Biology of Biomarkers
  • Biomarkers for the Differential Diagnosis of AKI (Table 6.2)
  • Biomarkers for the Early Diagnosis of AKI (Table 6.3)
  • Biomarkers That Predict Short-Term Outcomes (Table 6.4)
  • Biomarkers for Risk Stratification of Patients With Existing AKI (Table 6.5)
  • Biomarkers of AKI and Long-Term Outcomes
  • Biomarkers of Subclinical AKI (Table 6.6)
  • The Effect of Interventions on Biomarkers of AKI (Table 6.7)
  • Biomarkers of AKI in the ICU (Table 6.8)
  • Urinary Stability Studies for Biomarkers of AKI
  • Combinations of AKI Biomarkers
  • TIMP2 and IGFBP7 (Table 6.9)
  • Conclusions
  • References

CHAPTER SEVEN: Biomarkers of Extra-Renal Complications of AKI

  • AKI and Inflammation
  • Serum Cytokines are Increased in Patients With AKI
  • Pulmonary Complications of AKI
  • Summary
  • References

CHAPTER EIGHT: Biomarkers in Kidney Transplantation

  • Biomarkers: An Overview
  • Biomarkers of AKI Posttransplantation
  • Biomarkers of Acute Rejection
  • Biomarkers of Chronic Allograft Nephropathy
  • Biomarkers of Polyoma Virus Infection
  • Summary
  • References

CHAPTER NINE: Biomarkers of Renal Cancer

  • Renal Cancer
  • Cancer Biomarkers—General Concepts
  • Renal Cancer Biomarkers
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

CHAPTER TEN: Proteomics and Advancements in Urinary Biomarkers of Diabetics Kidney Disease

  • Introduction
  • Urinary Peptides as Biomarkers of Diabetic Kidney Disease
  • Future Developments and Applications of Proteomics for Biomarker Discovery
  • References

CHAPTER ELEVEN: Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Risk in Chronic Kidney Disease

  • Introduction
  • The Definition of CKD and the Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: GFR, Albuminuria, and Proteinuria
  • Cardiac Biomarkers in CKD
  • Summary
  • References

CHAPTER TWELVE: Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

  • Genetic Testing for Diagnosis and Prognosis
  • Total Kidney Volume
  • Renal Blood Flow
  • Serum and Urine Biomarkers
  • References

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: Biomarkers in Glomerular Disease

  • Biomarkers in Glomerular Diseases
  • Predictors of Outcome in Glomerular Diseases
  • Biomarkers in Lupus Nephritis
  • Predictors of Lupus Nephritis Class
  • Biomarkers that Predict Renal Lupus Flares
  • Membranous Nephropathy
  • Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis
  • Minimal Change Disease
  • CD80/B7-1 in Minimal Change and FSGS
  • IgA Nephropathy
  • Discovery of New Biomarkers Using Proteomics
  • References

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Biomarkers in Preeclampsia

  • Definition and Prevalence of the Disease
  • Pathophysiology and Mechanisms
  • Clinical Manifestations
  • Diagnosis
  • Biomarkers
  • Novel Biomarkers and Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Abbreviations
  • References