GREENFIELD'S SURGERY This title has been archived.

Author: Michael Mulholland, MD, PhD, Keith Lillemoe, MD, Gerard Doherty, MD, Ronald Maier, MD, Diane Simeone, MD, Gilbert Upchurch Jr., MD
Affiliation: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date: 2011
ISBN 10: 1605473553
ISBN 13: 9781605473550
Edition: 5th

Description:

The Fifth Edition of Greenfield's Surgery has been thoroughly revised, updated, and refocused to conform to changes in surgical education and practice. Reflecting the increasingly clinical emphasis of residency programs, this edition features expanded coverage of clinical material and increased use of clinical algorithms. Key Points, open each chapter, and icons in the text indicate where Key Points are fully discussed. Many of the black-and-white images from the previous edition have been replaced by full-color images. This edition has new chapters on quality assessment, surgical education, and surgical processes in the hospital. Coverage of surgical subspecialty areas is more sharply focused on topics that are encountered by general surgeons and included in the current general surgery curriculum and ABSITE exam. The vascular section has been further consolidated. A new editor, Diane Simeone, MD, PhD, has joined the editorial team. This edition is available either in one hardbound volume or in a four-volume softbound set. The lightweight four-volume option offers easy portability and quick access.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • DISCLAIMER
  • DEDICATION
  • CONTRIBUTORS
  • PREFACE
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

PART ONE SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES

    CHAPTER 1: READING EFFECTIVELY TO ATTAIN PROFICIENCY IN SURGERY

    • LEARNING, MEMORY, AND PROGRESSION TO EXPERTISE
    • READING FOR RETENTION AND TRANSFER—REMEMBERING FOLLOWS UNDERSTANDING
    • MONITORING YOUR LEVEL OF READING COMPREHENSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 2: SUBSTRATE METABOLISM IN SURGERY

    • INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM: AN OVERVIEW
    • CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM
    • LIPID METABOLISM
    • PROTEIN METABOLISM
    • THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE AND INTEGRATION OF METABOLIC PATHWAYS
    • BIOTRANSFORMATION
    • HEME AND PORPHYRIN METABOLISM
    • METAL METABOLISM
    • INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZED CELL FUNCTION
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    CHAPTER 3: NUTRITION AND METABOLISM

    • BASIC NUTRITIONAL METABOLIC PRINCIPLES
    • THE BODY’S RESPONSE WHEN STRESSED BY INJURY OR SURGERY
    • SPECIFIC STIMULANTS OF THE STRESS RESPONSE
    • DETERMINANTS OF HOST RESPONSES TO SURGICAL STRESS
    • SEPSIS: GENERAL OVERVIEW AND TIME COURSE OF THE METABOLIC RESPONSE TO SEPSIS
    • CANCER AND ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME
    • OTHER METHODS OF MODIFYING THE CATABOLIC RESPONSE TO SURGERY AND CRITICAL ILLNESS
    • CHOICE OF NUTRITION IN SURGICAL PATIENTS: ENTERAL OR PARENTERAL?
    • NUTRITION AS PRIMARY THERAPY
    • TECHNIQUES OF ENTERAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT
    • TECHNIQUES OF PARENTERAL NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • References

    CHAPTER 4: WOUND HEALING

    • NORMAL WOUND HEALING
    • OPEN WOUNDS (ACUTE)
    • CHRONIC WOUNDS
    • WOUND MANAGEMENT
    • EXCESSIVE SCARRING
    • FETAL WOUND HEALING AND STEM CELLS: THE POTENTIAL FOR TISSUE REGENERATION
    • References

    CHAPTER 5: HEMOSTASIS

    • BASIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • NATURAL ANTICOAGULANT MECHANISMS
    • FIBRINOLYSIS
    • ENDOTHELIUM AND HEMOSTASIS
    • THROMBOSIS, INFLAMMATION, AND RESOLUTION
    • ARTERIAL VERSUS VENOUS THROMBOSIS
    • PROCOAGULANT STATES
    • ACQUIRED PROCOAGULANT STATES
    • INHERITED PROCOAGULANT STATES
    • BLEEDING DISORDERS
    • PHARMACOLOGIC AND NONPHARMACOLOGIC INTERVENTIONS
    • LABORATORY MONITORING OF COAGULATION AND ANTICOAGULATION
    • References

    CHAPTER 6: INFLAMMATION

    • INNATE VERSUS ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY
    • CELLULAR COMPONENTS
    • RECOGNITION AND ACTIVATION PROCESSES
    • References

    CHAPTER 7: SURGICAL INFECTIONS

    • PREVENTION
    • DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • SURGICAL SITE INFECTIONS
    • INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS
    • NECROTIZING SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
    • SEPSIS, SHOCK, AND MULTIPLE ORGAN DYSFUNCTION
    • OTHER NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN SURGICAL PATIENTS
    • PATHOGENS
    • ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
    • References

    CHAPTER 8: SHOCK

    • EVALUATION OF SHOCK
    • TYPES OF SHOCK
    • PHYSIOLOGIC RESPONSE TO HYPOVOLEMIA
    • ORGAN-SPECIFIC COMPENSATORY RESPONSES TO SHOCK
    • LOSS OF COMPENSATORY RESPONSES TO SHOCK
    • COMPLICATIONS OF SHOCK
    • TREATMENT
    • MONITORS
    • PHARMACEUTICAL SUPPORT
    • References

    CHAPTER 9: CRITICAL CARE

    • ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
    • PURPOSES OF THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
    • ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FAILING CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    • SUPPORT OF THE FAILING RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • TRANSFUSION THERAPY IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
    • METABOLISM AND NUTRITION
    • STRICT GLYCEMIC CONTROL
    • ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
    • PROGNOSTICATION AND INTENSIVE CARE UNIT OUTCOME
    • ETHICS IN THE INTENSIVE CARE UNIT
    • References

    CHAPTER 10: FLUIDS, ELECTROLYTES, AND ACID–BASE BALANCE

    • BODY FLUIDS
    • FLUID BALANCE
    • FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE THERAPY
    • CORRECTION OF VOLUME ABNORMALITIES
    • MAINTENANCE FLUID THERAPY
    • REPLACEMENT OF ONGOING FLUID LOSSES
    • ELECTROLYTES
    • ACID–BASE BALANCE
    • References

    CHAPTER 11: BURNS

    • MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • BIOLOGY OF SKIN
    • BURN PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • SYSTEMIC RESPONSE TO BURN INJURY
    • INITIAL EVALUATION
    • AIRWAY ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
    • FLUID RESUSCITATION
    • WOUND MANAGEMENT
    • METABOLIC AND NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT
    • INFECTION
    • DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS
    • ANEMIA
    • PAIN MANAGEMENT
    • SPECIALIZED BURN AREAS
    • MISCELLANEOUS BURN INJURIES
    • NONACCIDENTAL BURN INJURIES
    • NONBURN CONDITIONS COMMONLY CARED FOR IN BURN CENTERS
    • HYPERTROPHIC SCARRING AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY
    • REHABILITATION AND RECONSTRUCTION
    • References

    CHAPTER 12: ANESTHESIOLOGY AND PAIN MANAGEMENT

    • ANESTHETIC AGENTS AND THEIR PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS
    • NEURAXIAL AND PERIPHERAL NERVE BLOCKADE
    • SEDATION ANALGESIA FOR MINOR SURGICAL PROCEDURES
    • AIRWAY EVALUATION FOR THE NONANESTHESIOLOGIST
    • RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH ANESTHESIA
    • RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH REGIONAL TECHNIQUES IN PATIENTS BEING TREATED WITH LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT HEPARIN
    • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • MONITORING THE SURGICAL PATIENT
    • COMMON PROBLEMS IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD
    • POSTOPERATIVE ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT
    • References

    CHAPTER 13: CANCER

    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • ETIOLOGY
    • CANCER BIOLOGY
    • TUMOR HOST INTERACTIONS
    • THE FUTURE OF CANCER THERAPY
    • ROLE OF THE SURGEON IN CANCER TREATMENT
    • CANCER DETECTION AND BIOMARKERS
    • CLINICAL TRIALS
    • Bibliography

    CHAPTER 14: POLICY APPROACHES TO IMPROVING SURGICAL QUALITY

    • SELECTIVE REFERRAL
    • PROCESS COMPLIANCE
    • OUTCOMES MEASUREMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    CHAPTER 15: MEASURING THE QUALITY OF SURGICAL CARE

    • OVERVIEW OF CURRENT MEASURES
    • INDIVIDUAL QUALITY MEASURES
    • Outcomes
    • COMPOSITE MEASURES
    • CHOOSING THE RIGHT MEASURE
    • DEVELOPING BETTER MEASURES
    • References

    CHAPTER 16: PATIENT SAFETY

    • IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS: SAFETY VERSUS QUALITY
    • THE PROBLEM
    • CULTURE
    • SWISS CHEESE AND MEDICAL ERRORS
    • LEADERSHIP AND POLICY
    • ASSESSING THE CULTURE
    • THE EVIDENCE BASE FOR PATIENT SAFETY
    • DEVELOPING CONSENSUS
    • PATIENT SAFETY INDICATORS
    • EFFORTS FROM THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION
    • IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES
    • PATIENT AND FAMILY INVOLVEMENT
    • DEVELOPING A TAXONOMY FOR PATIENT SAFETY
    • PUBLIC REPORTING OF SAFETY DATA
    • References

PART TWO SURGICAL PRACTICE

    SECTION A TRAUMA

      CHAPTER 17: TRAUMA AND TRAUMA CARE: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • MORTALITY PEAKS AFTER TRAUMA INJURY
      • TRAUMA CARE AND TRAUMA SYSTEMS
      • MILITARY HERITAGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF TRAUMA SYSTEMS
      • TRAUMA SYSTEM COMPONENTS
      • TRAUMA SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFECTIVENESS IN THE UNITED STATES
      • RURAL TRAUMA SYSTEMS
      • SUMMARY
      • SCORING SYSTEMS AND INJURY AND OUTCOME ASSESSMENTS
      • BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY
      • MOTOR VEHICLE COLLISIONS
      • MOTORCYCLES
      • PEDESTRIANS
      • FALLS
      • GENERAL ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN BLUNT INJURY
      • BIOMECHANICS OF PENETRATING INJURIES
      • GENERAL ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS OF PENETRATING INJURIES
      • THE ONGOING CHALLENGE OF TRAUMA
      • References

      CHAPTER 18: PREHOSPITAL AND RESUSCITATION CARE

      • PREHOSPITAL CARE
      • TRIAGE
      • RESUSCITATION PHASE
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 19: HEAD TRAUMA

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • CLINICAL ASSESSMENT
      • INITIAL TREATMENT
      • GUIDELINES FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE HEAD INJURY
      • DEFINITIVE MANAGEMENT
      • MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
      • References

      CHAPTER 20: MAXILLOFACIAL TRAUMA

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • INITIAL EVALUATION
      • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DIAGNOSIS OF MAXILLOFACIAL FRACTURES: THE FACIAL BUTTRESSES
      • PATTERNS OF INJURY
      • TIMING OF DEFINITIVE REPAIR
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 21: NECK INJURIES

      • ANATOMY
      • INITIAL MANAGEMENT
      • SELECTIVE VERSUS MANDATORY EXPLORATION
      • OPERATIVE EXPLORATION
      • MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC INJURIES
      • References

      CHAPTER 22: CHEST TRAUMA

      • TREATMENT OF INJURIES DURING THE PRIMARY SURVEY
      • BREATHING
      • CIRCULATION
      • TREATMENT OF INJURIES DURING THE SECONDARY SURVEY
      • SIMPLE PNEUMOTHORAX
      • HEMOTHORAX
      • PULMONARY CONTUSION AND PARENCHYMAL INJURIES
      • TRACHEOBRONCHIAL TREE INJURY
      • BLUNT CARDIAC INJURY
      • TRAUMATIC AORTIC DISRUPTION
      • TRAUMATIC DIAPHRAGMATIC INJURY
      • ESOPHAGEAL RUPTURE
      • SPECIAL THORACIC TRAUMA ISSUES
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 23: ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

      • ANATOMIC CONSIDERATIONS
      • PENETRATING INJURY
      • BLUNT TRAUMA
      • PREHOSPITAL CARE
      • HOSPITAL RESUSCITATION AND DIAGNOSIS
      • HISTORY AND PATTERN OF INJURY
      • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
      • LABORATORY STUDIES
      • RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION
      • DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE AND ABDOMINAL ULTRASOUND
      • INDICATIONS FOR SURGERY
      • OPERATIVE APPROACH
      • SPECIFIC INJURIES
      • References

      CHAPTER 24: GENITOURINARY TRAUMA

      • UPPER URINARY TRACT INJURY
      • LOWER URINARY TRACT INJURY
      • References

      CHAPTER 25: VASCULAR TRAUMA

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF VASCULAR INJURY: DISTRIBUTION OF INJURIES
      • PHYSIOLOGIC CONSEQUENCE OF VASCULAR INJURY
      • DIAGNOSIS OF VASCULAR INJURY
      • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
      • OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC REGIONS
      • POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
      • MILITARY-SPECIFIC APPLICATIONS
      • OUTCOMES
      • CONCLUSIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 26: ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA

      • LIFE-THREATENING INJURIES
      • LIMB-THREATENING INJURIES
      • INJURIES ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM MORBIDITY
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 27: PEDIATRIC TRAUMA

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PREHOSPITAL CARE
      • INITIAL RESUSCITATION AND EVALUATION
      • MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC INJURIES
      • INFLICTED TRAUMA
      • PERFORMANCE INDICATORS
      • FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY
      • INJURY PREVENTION
      • References

      CHAPTER 28: GERIATRIC TRAUMA AND END-OF-LIFE DECISIONS

      • DEFINITION OF GERIATRIC TRAUMA
      • PREDICTORS OF MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY
      • REASONS FOR INCREASED MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS
      • MECHANISM OF INJURY
      • INJURY PREVENTION IN THE GERIATRIC POPULATION
      • AGE AS A CRITERION FOR TRAUMA CENTER TRIAGE
      • INTENSIVE CARE IN GERIATRIC TRAUMA
      • OUTCOME FROM CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION IN THE ELDERLY
      • ADVANCE DIRECTIVES AND HEALTH CARE PROXIES
      • WITHHOLDING AND WITHDRAWING SUPPORT IN GERIATRIC TRAUMA PATIENTS
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 29: TRAUMA IN PREGNANCY

      • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY UNIQUE TO THE GRAVID PATIENT
      • INITIAL ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT
      • DIAGNOSTIC MODALITIES
      • BLUNT TRAUMA
      • PENETRATING TRAUMA
      • OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
      • CRITICAL CARE MANAGEMENT
      • CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
      • TOXEMIA OF PREGNANCY OR PREECLAMPSIA (PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION)
      • THROMBOEMBOLISM
      • AMNIOTIC FLUID EMBOLISM
      • INTERPERSONAL VIOLENCE
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 30: CRITICAL CARE AND POSTINJURY MANAGEMENT

      • STABILIZATION AND SECONDARY SURVEY (INITIAL 24 HOURS POSTINJURY)
      • ORGAN SYSTEM SUPPORT AND DEFINITIVE CARE (1 TO 7 DAYS POSTINJURY)
      • MANAGEMENT OF INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS (8 DAYS AND BEYOND)
      • References

      CHAPTER 31: ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES

      • ENVENOMATION
      • ENVIRONMENTAL INJURIES
      • References

      CHAPTER 32: TERRORISM

      • THE CHALLENGE
      • BIOLOGIC WEAPONS
      • CHEMICAL WEAPONS
      • NUCLEAR/RADIOLOGIC WEAPONS
      • EXPLOSIVE WEAPONS
      • TRIAGE AND HOSPITAL CASUALTY MANAGEMENT
      • PLANNING AND REPORTING
      • References

    SECTION B TRANSPLANTATION & IMMUNOLOGY

      CHAPTER 33: TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGY

      • THE VASCULAR ANASTOMOSIS AND FIRST LESSONS OF TRANSPLANTATION
      • INJURY FROM HARVESTING, ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION, AND OTHER “TECHNICAL” PROBLEMS
      • GENETIC DETERMINANTS
      • IMMUNITY AND THE REJECTION OF TRANSPLANTS
      • CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSPLANT IMMUNITY
      • PRODUCTS OF THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX
      • ANTIGEN PROCESSING AND PRESENTATION
      • T-CELL ACTIVATION
      • IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY
      • UNIQUE FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE TO TRANSPLANTATION
      • REGULATION OF ALLOIMMUNE RESPONSES
      • PREVENTING AND TREATING TRANSPLANT REJECTION
      • IMMUNOSUPPRESSION FOR TRANSPLANTATION
      • INDUCTION OF TOLERANCE
      • B CELLS IN TRANSPLANTATION
      • TYPES OF B-CELL RESPONSES
      • B-CELL MEMORY
      • B-CELL TOLERANCE
      • IMPACT OF IMMUNITY ON TRANSPLANTS
      • HYPERACUTE REJECTION
      • ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION
      • CHRONIC REJECTION
      • ACCOMMODATION
      • CELLULAR REJECTION
      • CONCLUDING REMARKS
      • References

      CHAPTER 34: ORGAN PRESERVATION

      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ORGAN PRESERVATION INJURY
      • CONTEMPORARY CLINICAL PRACTICE
      • References

      CHAPTER 35: RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

      • IMMUNOLOGY OF RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
      • THE DONOR POOL: LIVING DONORS, DECEASED DONORS, DONATION AFTER CARDIAC DEATH
      • THE TRANSPLANT PROCEDURE
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • IMMUNOSUPPRESSION, REJECTION, AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE COMPLICATIONS
      • CURRENT RESULTS AND FUTURE TRENDS
      • References

      CHAPTER 36: HEPATIC TRANSPLANTATION

      • GENERAL INDICATIONS FOR HEPATIC TRANSPLANTATION
      • DISEASE-SPECIFIC INDICATIONS AND OUTCOMES
      • LIVER TRANSPLANTATION: SURGICAL PROCEDURE
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • REJECTION AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
      • RESULTS
      • References

      CHAPTER 37: CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION

      • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      • CANDIDATE EVALUATION
      • DONOR SELECTION AND MANAGEMENT
      • MATCHING DONOR TO RECIPIENT
      • RECIPIENT MANAGEMENT BEFORE TRANSPLANT
      • HEART PROCUREMENT
      • OPERATIVE RECIPIENT MANAGEMENT
      • IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • RESULTS
      • ETHICS
      • CURRENT ISSUES
      • References

      CHAPTER 38: PULMONARY TRANSPLANTATION

      • INTRODUCTION
      • INDICATIONS
      • CONTRAINDICATIONS
      • LUNG ALLOCATION AND TRANSPLANT BENEFIT
      • DONOR CONSIDERATIONS
      • TRANSPLANTATION OPERATION
      • OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE
      • RESULTS
      • IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • POSTTRANSPLANTATION PHYSIOLOGY
      • FUTURE CONSIDERATIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 39: PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION

      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • SECONDARY COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES
      • PANCREAS TRANSPLANTATION
      • ISLET TRANSPLANTATION
      • THE FUTURE OF PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION
      • References

    SECTION C HEAD AND NECK

      CHAPTER 40: HEAD AND NECK

      • EVALUATING THE PATIENT WITH A HEAD AND NECK COMPLAINT
      • AIRWAY MANAGEMENT
      • NONNEOPLASTIC DISORDERS
      • HEAD AND NECK NEOPLASIA
      • GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEAD AND NECK CARCINOMA
      • HEAD AND NECK CANCER MANAGEMENT BY SUBSITE
      • References

    SECTION D ESOPHAGUS

      CHAPTER 41: ESOPHAGEAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY AND GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

      • ANATOMY
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE
      • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 42: ESOPHAGUS: TUMORS AND INJURY

      • SURGICAL APPROACHES TO THE ESOPHAGUS
      • ESOPHAGEAL INJURY
      • BENIGN NEOPLASMS
      • MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS
      • References

    SECTION E STOMACH AND DUODENUM

      CHAPTER 43: GASTRIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

      • GROSS ANATOMY
      • MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY
      • GASTRIC PEPTIDES
      • GASTRIC ACID SECRETION
      • PEPSIN
      • INTRINSIC FACTOR
      • GASTRIC BICARBONATE PRODUCTION
      • GASTRIC BLOOD FLOW
      • GASTRIC MOTILITY
      • References

      CHAPTER 44: GASTRODUODENAL ULCERATION

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • DRUG TREATMENT OF ULCER DISEASE
      • HISTAMINE-RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS
      • PROTON PUMP BLOCKERS
      • SUCRALFATE
      • OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF ULCER DISEASE
      • GASTRIC ULCER
      • POSTGASTRECTOMY SYNDROMES
      • STRESS GASTRITIS
      • References

      CHAPTER 45: MORBID OBESITY

      • ETIOLOGY
      • CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MORBID OBESITY
      • MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF MORBID OBESITY
      • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MORBID OBESITY
      • COMPLICATIONS OF GASTRIC SURGERY FOR MORBID OBESITY
      • FAILED GASTRIC SURGERY FOR OBESITY
      • OVERVIEW OF GASTRIC SURGERY
      • References

      CHAPTER 46: GASTRIC NEOPLASMS

      • ADENOCARCINOMA
      • GASTRIC LYMPHOMA
      • GASTRIC CARCINOIDS
      • GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS OF THE STOMACH
      • References

    SECTION F SMALL INTESTINE

      CHAPTER 47: ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SMALL INTESTINE

      • GROSS ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY
      • MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • References

      CHAPTER 48: ILEUS AND BOWEL OBSTRUCTION

      • INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
      • MECHANICAL OBSTRUCTION OF THE INTESTINES
      • ILEUS AND PSEUDO-OBSTRUCTION
      • References

      CHAPTER 49: CROHN DISEASE*

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • ETIOLOGY OF CROHN DISEASE
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • DISEASE PATTERNS
      • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
      • EXTRAINTESTINAL DISEASE
      • ENDOSCOPY
      • SMALL-BOWEL RADIOGRAPHY
      • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
      • CAPSULE ENDOSCOPY
      • PATHOLOGY
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • TREATMENT
      • MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
      • INDICATIONS FOR OPERATION
      • SPECIFIC SCENARIOS OF CROHN DISEASE
      • RECURRENCE
      • References

      CHAPTER 50: SMALL-INTESTINAL NEOPLASMS

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOGENESIS
      • CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RISK FOR SMALL-BOWEL TUMORS
      • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
      • BENIGN TUMORS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
      • ADENOMAS
      • LIPOMAS
      • HAMARTOMAS
      • HEMANGIOMAS
      • MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS
      • ADENOCARCINOMA
      • NON-HODGKIN LYMPHOMA
      • CARCINOID TUMORS
      • GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS
      • METASTATIC LESIONS TO THE SMALL BOWEL
      • References

    SECTION G PANCREAS

      CHAPTER 51: PANCREAS ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • STRUCTURE AND HISTOLOGY
      • PANCREATIC ANATOMY
      • SURGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF PANCREATIC ANATOMY
      • PANCREATIC PHYSIOLOGY
      • DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH PANCREATIC DISEASE
      • References

      CHAPTER 52: ACUTE PANCREATITIS

      • CLASSIFICATION AND DEFINITIONS
      • PATHOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • ETIOLOGY
      • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • ASSESSMENT OF DISEASE SEVERITY
      • MANAGEMENT
      • References

      CHAPTER 53: CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
      • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • THERAPY
      • SURGERY FOR COMPLICATIONS OF CP
      • CONCLUSION
      • References

      CHAPTER 54: NEOPLASMS OF THE EXOCRINE PANCREAS

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
      • MOLECULAR GENETICS
      • PATHOLOGY
      • CLINICOPATHOLOGIC STAGING
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • PREOPERATIVE STAGING
      • STAGING LAPAROSCOPY
      • RESECTION OF PANCREATIC CARCINOMA
      • ADJUVANT AND NEOADJUVANT THERAPY
      • PALLIATION
      • References

      CHAPTER 55: NEOPLASMS OF THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS

      • MOLECULAR GENETICS
      • PRESENTATION AND EVALUATION
      • LOCALIZATION AND STAGING
      • SURGICAL EXPLORATION
      • INSULINOMA
      • GASTRINOMA (ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME)
      • VIPOMA (VERNER-MORRISON SYNDROME)
      • GLUCAGONOMA
      • SOMATOSTATINOMA
      • NONFUNCTIONAL ISLET CELL TUMORS
      • METASTATIC PANCREATIC ENDOCRINE TUMORS
      • References

    SECTION H HEPATOBILIARY AND PORTAL VENOUS SYSTEM

      CHAPTER 56: HEPATOBILIARY ANATOMY

      • TOPOGRAPHIC ANATOMY
      • MORPHOLOGIC AND FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
      • LIVER IMAGING
      • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION OF HEPATIC RESERVE
      • ONCOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS IN HEPATIC RESECTION
      • INTRAOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT
      • MAJOR HEPATECTOMIES
      • SEGMENTAL RESECTIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 57: HEPATIC INFECTION AND ACUTE HEPATIC FAILURE

      • PYOGENIC LIVER ABSCESS
      • AMEBIC LIVER ABSCESS
      • ECHINOCOCCUS (HYDATID DISEASE)
      • SCHISTOSOMA
      • VIRAL HEPATITIDES
      • HEPATITIS A VIRUS
      • HEPATITIS B VIRUS
      • HEPATITIS C VIRUS
      • HEPATITIS D VIRUS
      • HEPATITIS E VIRUS
      • CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
      • EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS
      • HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS
      • VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS
      • ACUTE LIVER FAILURE
      • References

      CHAPTER 58 : CIRRHOSIS AND PORTAL HYPERTENSION

      • CIRRHOSIS
      • PORTAL HYPERTENSION
      • References

      CHAPTER 59: HEPATIC NEOPLASMS

      • DIAGNOSIS
      • BENIGN HEPATIC NEOPLASMS
      • PRIMARY HEPATIC MALIGNANCIES
      • METASTATIC HEPATIC MALIGNANCIES
      • SURGICAL TREATMENT OF HEPATIC NEOPLASMS
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 60: CALCULOUS BILIARY DISEASE

      • BILIARY PHYSIOLOGY
      • GALLSTONE PATHOGENESIS
      • GALLSTONE INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS
      • NATURAL HISTORY OF GALLSTONES
      • DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
      • TREATMENT
      • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
      • CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS
      • References

      CHAPTER 61: BILIARY INJURIES AND STRICTURES AND SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS

      • POSTOPERATIVE BILE DUCT STRICTURES
      • PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS
      • BILE DUCT STRICTURES SECONDARY TO CHRONIC PANCREATITIS
      • MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES OF BILE DUCT STRICTURES
      • References

      CHAPTER 62: BILIARY NEOPLASMS

      • GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA
      • BILE DUCT CARCINOMA
      • INTRAHEPATIC CHOLANGIOCARCINOMA
      • BENIGN GALLBLADDER NEOPLASMS
      • BENIGN BILE DUCT NEOPLASMS
      • References

    SECTION I COLON, RECTUM, AND ANUS

      CHAPTER 63: COLONIC AND RECTAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

      • EMBRYOLOGY OF THE COLON AND RECTUM
      • ANATOMY OF THE COLON AND RECTUM
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • DISORDERS OF COLONIC MOTILITY
      • References

      CHAPTER 64: GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY DISORDERS

      • DISORDERS AFFECTING THE ENTIRE DIGESTIVE TRACT
      • DISORDERS AFFECTING SPECIFIC ORGANS
      • References

      CHAPTER 65: ACUTE GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE

      • PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS
      • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
      • INITIAL EVALUATION AND RESUSCITATION
      • DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH
      • COMMON CAUSES OF GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE AND TREATMENT
      • LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE
      • UNUSUAL CAUSES OF ACUTE GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE
      • References

      CHAPTER 66: ULCERATIVE COLITIS

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOLOGY
      • CLINICAL FEATURES/COURSE
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • MEDICAL MANAGEMENT
      • INDICATIONS FOR SURGICAL INTERVENTION
      • References

      CHAPTER 67: COLONIC POLYPS AND POLYPOSIS SYNDROMES

      • COLORECTAL POLYPS
      • NONNEOPLASTIC MUCOSAL POLYPS
      • GASTROINTESTINAL POLYPOSIS SYNDROMES
      • NONFAMILIAL GASTROINTESTINAL POLYPOSIS SYNDROMES
      • References

      CHAPTER 68: COLORECTAL CANCER

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • ETIOLOGY
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • STAGING
      • NATURAL HISTORY
      • TREATMENT
      • References

      CHAPTER 69: DIVERTICULAR DISEASE

      • CLASSIFICATION
      • INCIDENCE
      • ETIOLOGY
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • TREATMENT
      • MANAGEMENT
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 70: ANORECTAL DISORDERS

      • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
      • BENIGN ANORECTAL DISEASE
      • ANORECTAL ABSCESSES
      • ANAL FISTULA
      • PILONIDAL SINUS
      • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES OF THE ANORECTUM
      • ANORECTAL DISEASES IN PATIENTS WITH HIV AND AIDS
      • ANAL CANCER
      • References

    SECTION J HERNIA, ACUTE ABDOMEN, AND SPLEEN

      CHAPTER 71: ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS

      • ANATOMY OF THE ABDOMINAL WALL AND GROIN
      • WHY DO HUMAN BEINGS DEVELOP ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS?
      • COMPLICATIONS OF HERNIAS
      • GROIN HERNIAS
      • SPORTS HERNIA
      • VENTRAL ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIAS
      • UMBILICAL AND PERIUMBILICAL HERNIAS
      • EPIGASTRIC HERNIAS
      • INCISIONAL HERNIAS
      • PARASTOMAL HERNIAS
      • UNUSUAL HERNIAS
      • References

      CHAPTER 72: ACUTE ABDOMEN AND APPENDIX

      • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH ACUTE ABDOMINAL PAIN
      • EMBRYOLOGIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • EVALUATION OF THE PATIENT WITH ABDOMINAL PAIN
      • APPENDIX
      • References

      CHAPTER 73: THE SPLEEN

      • HISTORY
      • EMBRYOLOGY AND ANATOMY
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • TREATMENT OF DISORDERS OF THE SPLEEN
      • INCIDENTAL SPLENECTOMY
      • IATROGENIC SPLENECTOMY
      • DIAGNOSTIC SPLENECTOMY
      • VASCULAR DISORDERS OF THE SPLEEN
      • MISCELLANEOUS INDICATIONS FOR SPLENECTOMY
      • SPLENECTOMY
      • References

    SECTION K SURGICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY

      CHAPTER 74: BREAST DISEASE

      • ANATOMY
      • LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • BREAST EXAMINATION
      • CLINICAL BREAST PROBLEMS
      • RISK FACTORS FOR BREAST CANCER
      • BENIGN BREAST DISEASE
      • CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF RISK
      • MANAGEMENT OF THE HIGH-RISK WOMAN
      • DUCTAL CARCINOMA IN SITU
      • BIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF BREAST CANCER
      • INVASIVE CARCINOMA
      • PROGNOSTIC FACTORS
      • ADJUVANT SYSTEMIC THERAPY
      • SPECIAL PROBLEMS
      • OTHER CANCERS IN THE BREAST
      • LOCALLY ADVANCED BREAST CANCER
      • References

      CHAPTER 75: THYROID GLAND

      • EMBRYOLOGY AND SURGICAL IMPLICATIONS
      • ANATOMY AND SURGICAL IMPLICATIONS
      • THYROID PHYSIOLOGY
      • RELEVANT LABORATORY TESTS
      • THYROID IMAGING TECHNIQUES
      • FUNCTIONAL DISORDERS AND GENERAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS
      • NODULAR THYROID DISEASE AND GENERAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS
      • THYROID MALIGNANCY AND GENERAL TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS
      • THYROID SURGERY
      • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      • References

      CHAPTER 76: PARATHYROID GLANDS

      • ANATOMY
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • HYPERCALCEMIA
      • HYPOCALCEMIA
      • HYPERPARATHYROIDISM
      • MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA
      • References

      CHAPTER 77: ADRENAL GLAND

      • ANATOMY
      • BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY
      • DISEASES OF THE ADRENAL CORTEX
      • DISEASES OF THE ADRENAL MEDULLA
      • ADRENALECTOMY
      • Bibliography

      CHAPTER 78: PITUITARY GLAND

      • EMBRYOLOGY, ANATOMY, AND PHYSIOLOGY
      • METHODS OF CELL ANALYSIS
      • IMAGING OF THE PITUITARY AND PARASELLAR REGION
      • CLINICAL AND ENDOCRINE EVALUATION
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • TREATMENT AND RESULTS
      • NONFUNCTIONING ADENOMAS
      • CUSHING DISEASE
      • ACROMEGALY
      • PROLACTINOMAS
      • References

    SECTION L LUNG NEOPLASMS

      CHAPTER 79: LUNG NEOPLASMS

      • HISTORY
      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION
      • TUMOR BIOLOGY
      • NON–SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER
      • NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS
      • BRONCHIAL GLAND CARCINOMAS
      • OTHER MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE LUNG
      • RESECTION OF PULMONARY METASTASES
      • BENIGN TUMORS OF THE LUNG
      • References

      CHAPTER 80: CHEST WALL, PLEURA, MEDIASTINUM, AND NONNEOPLASTIC LUNG DISEASE

      • CHEST WALL
      • NONNEOPLASTIC LUNG DISEASE
      • PLEURAL DISEASE
      • TRACHEA
      • MEDIASTINUM
      • References

    SECTION M ARTERIAL SYSTEM

      CHAPTER 81: CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

      • HISTORY
      • ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT
      • VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT
      • ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT
      • TETRALOGY OF FALLOT
      • DOUBLE-OUTLET RIGHT VENTRICLE
      • TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES
      • TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS
      • AORTIC STENOSIS
      • COARCTATION OF THE AORTA
      • PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
      • VASCULAR RINGS
      • CORONARY ARTERY ANOMALIES
      • UNIVENTRICULAR HEART
      • HYPOPLASTIC LEFT-HEART SYNDROME
      • References

      CHAPTER 82: VALVULAR HEART DISEASE AND CARDIAC TUMORS

      • VALVULAR HEART DISEASE
      • AORTIC STENOSIS
      • AORTIC REGURGITATION
      • MITRAL STENOSIS
      • MITRAL REGURGITATION
      • TRICUSPID VALVE DISEASE
      • VALVE PROSTHESES
      • CARDIAC TUMORS
      • BENIGN PRIMARY CARDIAC TUMORS
      • MALIGNANT PRIMARY CARDIAC TUMORS
      • SECONDARY CARDIAC TUMORS: METASTASES TO THE HEART
      • References

      CHAPTER 83: ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

      • CORONARY ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
      • CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS
      • PATIENT PRESENTATION
      • COMPLICATIONS OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTIONS
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • MEDICAL TREATMENT
      • PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTIONS
      • CORONARY BYPASS GRAFTING
      • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
      • RESULTS OF CORONARY BYPASS GRAFTING
      • COMPARATIVE TRIALS
      • References

      CHAPTER 84: MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT FOR CARDIAC FAILURE

      • INDICATIONS FOR MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT AND DEVICE SELECTION
      • TIMING OF MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT INTERVENTION
      • PATIENT SELECTION AND INFLUENCE OF COMORBIDITIES ON OUTCOMES
      • OTHER IMPORTANT MEDICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN INSTITUTING MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT
      • PATIENT OUTCOMES AND MAJOR ADVERSE EVENTS FOLLOWING INITIATION OF MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT
      • WEANING PATIENTS FROM MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT
      • MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT DEVICES
      • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 85: PERICARDIUM

      • HISTORY
      • EMBRYOLOGY AND ANATOMY
      • NORMAL PHYSIOLOGY
      • DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES
      • CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES
      • ACUTE PERICARDITIS
      • PERICARDIAL EFFUSION AND TAMPONADE
      • PERICARDIAL CONSTRICTION
      • NEOPLASTIC PERICARDIAL DISEASE
      • PERICARDIOCENTESIS
      • PERICARDIAL BIOPSY AND SURGICAL DRAINAGE
      • PERICARDIECTOMY
      • References

      CHAPTER 86: VASCULAR DIAGNOSTICS

      • PLETHYSMOGRAPHY
      • ULTRASOUND
      • BASICS OF DUPLEX ULTRASOUND
      • CAROTID AND VERTEBRAL ARTERIES
      • COMMON CAROTID ARTERY WAVEFORMS
      • INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY WAVEFORMS
      • CLASSIFYING CAROTID STENOSIS
      • CURRENT CRITERIA FOR INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY STENOSIS
      • BILATERAL HIGH-GRADE INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY STENOSIS
      • STENTED CAROTID ARTERIES
      • COMMON CAROTID ARTERY AND EXTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY STENOSIS
      • LOWER EXTREMITY ARTERIAL DISEASE
      • PLETHYSMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUES
      • ULTRASOUND TECHNIQUES
      • SEGMENTAL ARM PRESSURES
      • DIGITAL PRESSURES AND PLETHYSMOGRAPHY
      • COLD CHALLENGE TESTING
      • UPPER EXTREMITY DUPLEX SCANNING
      • VISCERAL ARTERIES
      • VENOUS DISEASE
      • SELECTED MISCELLANEOUS EXAMINATIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 87: ENDOVASCULAR TREATMENT OF DISEASE

      • BASIC CONCEPTS
      • CAROTID ARTERY INTERVENTIONS
      • MESENTERIC ARTERY INTERVENTIONS
      • RENAL ARTERY INTERVENTIONS
      • AORTIC INTERVENTIONS
      • LOWER EXTREMITY ARTERIAL INTERVENTIONS
      • VENOUS INTERVENTIONS
      • THROMBOLYSIS
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      CHAPTER 88: VASCULAR INFECTIONS

      • VASCULAR PROSTHETIC INFECTIONS
      • INFECTED (MYCOTIC) ANEURYSMS
      • SEPTIC THROMBOPHLEBITIS
      • References

      CHAPTER 89 : ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND THE PATHOGENESIS OF OCCLUSIVE DISEASE

      • NORMAL STRUCTURE OF BLOOD VESSELS
      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • REGULATION OF LUMINAL AREA
      • REGULATION OF MEDIAL AND INTIMAL THICKENING
      • REGULATION OF SMOOTH MUSCLE GROWTH
      • REGULATION OF THE ANTICOAGULATED STATE
      • LESIONS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS
      • THEORIES OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS
      • References

      CHAPTER 90: CEREBROVASCULAR OCCLUSIVE DISEASE

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOGENESIS OF STROKE
      • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA
      • DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
      • TREATMENT OF CAROTID OCCLUSIVE DISEASE
      • CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY VERSUS ANGIOPLASTY AND STENTING
      • NONATHEROSCLEROTIC DISEASE OF THE CAROTID ARTERY
      • References

      CHAPTER 91: UPPER EXTREMITY ARTERIAL DISEASE

      • ANATOMY
      • MEDICAL HISTORY
      • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
      • CLINICAL EXAMINATION
      • LABORATORY TESTING
      • IMAGING
      • TREATMENT
      • References

      CHAPTER 92: RENAL ARTERY OCCLUSIVE AND ANEURYSMAL DISEASE

      • RENAL ARTERY OCCLUSIVE DISEASE
      • RENAL ARTERY ANEURYSMAL DISEASE
      • References

      CHAPTER 93: SPLANCHNIC VASCULAR OCCLUSIVE AND ANEURYSMAL DISEASE

      • SPLANCHNIC VASCULAR ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
      • SPLANCHNIC ISCHEMIC SYNDROMES
      • ACUTE SPLANCHNIC ISCHEMIA
      • CHRONIC SPLANCHNIC ISCHEMIA
      • SPLANCHNIC ARTERY ANEURYSMAL DISEASE
      • References

      CHAPTER 94: AORTOILIAC DISEASE

      • KEY POINTS
      • ANATOMY
      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
      • PRESENTATION
      • EVALUATION
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • TREATMENT
      • References

      CHAPTER 95: FEMOROPOPLITEAL AND TIBIAL OCCLUSIVE DISEASE

      • KEY POINTS
      • INFRAINGUINAL ARTERIAL OCCLUSIVE DISEASE
      • References

      CHAPTER 96: LOWER EXTREMITY AMPUTATION

      • KEY POINTS
      • INDICATIONS
      • EVALUATION FOR REVASCULARIZATION
      • SELECTION OF AMPUTATION LEVEL
      • OPERATIVE TECHNIQUE
      • REHABILITATION AND PROSTHETIC MANAGEMENT
      • References

      CHAPTER 97: PATHOGENESIS OF ANEURYSMS

      • KEY POINTS
      • CLINICAL RISK FACTORS
      • CLINICAL AND BASIC SCIENCE RESEARCH IN ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSM PATHOGENESIS
      • MOLECULAR GENETICS
      • INFLAMMATION AND IMMUNE RESPONSES
      • PROTEOLYTIC DEGRADATION OF AORTIC WALL CONNECTIVE TISSUE
      • BIOMECHANICAL WALL STRESS
      • CONCLUSION
      • References

      CHAPTER 98: THORACIC AORTIC ANEURYSMS

      • KEY POINTS
      • HISTORY
      • PREVALENCE
      • ETIOLOGY AND RISK FACTORS
      • DIAGNOSIS
      • MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL HISTORY
      • MANAGEMENT
      • OUTCOMES AND COMPLICATIONS
      • CONCLUSIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 99: THORACOABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS

      • KEY POINTS
      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • PATHOGENESIS
      • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
      • DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
      • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
      • OPERATIVE TECHNIQUES
      • POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
      • SURGICAL OUTCOMES
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 100: ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURYSMS

      • KEY POINTS
      • DEFINITIONS AND CLASSIFICATIONS
      • MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM
      • PATHOGENESIS AND RISK FACTORS
      • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT
      • CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS
      • OPERATIVE INDICATIONS
      • CHOICE OF OPEN OR ENDOVASCULAR REPAIR
      • OPERATIVE REPAIR
      • ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 101: LOWER EXTREMITY ANEURYSMS

      • KEY POINTS
      • PERIPHERAL ANEURYSMS
      • FEMORAL ARTERY ANEURYSMS
      • POPLITEAL ARTERY ANEURYSMS
      • References

    SECTION N VENOUS SYSTEM

      CHAPTER 102: VENOUS DISEASE

      • KEY POINTS
      • ACUTE VENOUS THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASE
      • STANDARD THERAPY FOR VTE
      • ALTERNATIVE/FUTURE MEDICAL TREATMENTS FOR DVT/PE
      • NONPHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENTS
      • CHRONIC VENOUS DISEASE
      • References

    SECTION O PEDIATRICS

      CHAPTER 103: SURGICAL PHYSIOLOGY OF INFANTS AND CHILDREN

      • KEY POINTS
      • GROWTH AND METABOLISM
      • NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT
      • FLUID, ELECTROLYTE, AND RENAL PHYSIOLOGY
      • RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY AND SUPPORT
      • CARDIOVASCULAR PHYSIOLOGY AND SUPPORT
      • GASTROINTESTINAL AND HEPATIC PHYSIOLOGY
      • References

      CHAPTER 104: FETAL INTERVENTION

      • KEY POINTS
      • FETAL IMAGING AND PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS
      • MATERNAL–FETAL RISKS
      • SURGICAL TECHNIQUES: OPEN, FETOSCOPIC, AND PERCUTANEOUS APPROACHES
      • RATIONALE AND OUTCOME OF FETAL SURGERY FOR SPECIFIC CONGENITAL ANOMALIES
      • EX UTERO INTRAPARTUM TREATMENT–EXTRACORPOREAL MEMBRANE OXYGENATION
      • FUTURE OF FETAL INTERVENTION
      • References

      CHAPTER 105: PEDIATRIC HEAD AND NECK

      • KEY POINTS
      • IMAGING STUDIES
      • AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
      • BRANCHIAL CLEFT REMNANTS
      • THYROGLOSSAL DUCT CYST
      • LYMPHADENOPATHY
      • VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS
      • LYMPHATIC MALFORMATIONS
      • References

      CHAPTER 106: THE PEDIATRIC CHEST

      • KEY POINTS
      • CHEST WALL DEFORMITIES
      • CONGENITAL CYSTIC DISEASE OF THE LUNG
      • THORACIC TUMORS IN CHILDREN
      • ESOPHAGEAL ATRESIA/TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA
      • OTHER CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES OF THE TRACHEA AND ESOPHAGUS
      • FOREIGN BODIES OF THE TRACHEOBRONCHIAL TREE
      • CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES OF THE DIAPHRAGM
      • PLEURAL DISEASES
      • References

      CHAPTER 107: PEDIATRIC ABDOMEN

      • KEY POINTS
      • ABDOMINAL WALL DEFECTS
      • GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
      • OTHER CHILDHOOD GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
      • PEDIATRIC LIVER
      • PEDIATRIC BILIARY TRACT
      • PEDIATRIC PANCREAS
      • References

      CHAPTER 108: THE PEDIATRIC GENITOURINARY SYSTEM

      • KEY POINTS
      • THE NEPHRIC SYSTEM
      • ANOMALIES OF THE KIDNEY
      • ANOMALIES OF THE URETER
      • VESICOURETHRAL SYSTEM
      • ANOMALIES OF THE BLADDER
      • ANOMALIES OF THE URETHRA
      • GENITAL SYSTEM
      • AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA
      • ANOMALIES OF MALE GENITALIA
      • VAGINAL ANOMALIES AND UROGENITAL SINUS MALFORMATIONS
      • OTHER GENITOURINARY DISORDERS
      • References

      CHAPTER 109: CHILDHOOD TUMORS

      • KEY POINTS
      • INCIDENCE OF SOLID TUMORS IN CHILDHOOD
      • NEUROBLASTOMA
      • WILMS TUMOR
      • NON-WILMS RENAL TUMORS OF CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE
      • RHABDOMYOSARCOMA
      • NONRHABDOMYOMATOUS SOFT TISSUE SARCOMAS
      • HEPATIC TUMORS
      • References

    SECTION P GENITOURINARY SYSTEM

      CHAPTER 110: THE PREGNANT PATIENT

      • KEY POINTS
      • UTERINE PHYSIOLOGY AND PRETERM LABOR
      • PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES OF PREGNANCY THAT MIMIC DISEASE
      • IMAGING MODALITIES IN THE PREGNANT PATIENT
      • FETAL MONITORING
      • APPENDICITIS IN THE PREGNANT PATIENT
      • BILIARY TRACT DISEASE IN PREGNANCY
      • INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION DURING PREGNANCY
      • COLORECTAL CANCER DURING PREGNANCY
      • References

    SECTION Q SKIN AND SOFT TISSUE

      CHAPTER 111: CUTANEOUS NEOPLASMS

      • KEY POINTS
      • MELANOMA
      • NONMELANOMA SKIN TUMORS
      • References

      CHAPTER 112: SARCOMAS OF SOFT TISSUE AND BONE

      • KEY POINTS
      • MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSTICS
      • SOFT TISSUE SARCOMAS
      • RETROPERITONEAL AND INTRA-ABDOMINAL SARCOMAS
      • RECURRENT OR METASTATIC DISEASE
      • GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS (GIST)
      • DESMOID TUMORS/DESMOID FIBROMATOSIS
      • BONE SARCOMAS
      • References

      CHAPTER 113: PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY

      • KEY POINTS
      • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT FOR PROBLEM WOUNDS
      • RECONSTRUCTIVE AND AESTHETIC SURGERY OF THE BREAST
      • RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY OF THE HAND
      • AESTHETIC SURGERY
      • PEDIATRIC PLASTIC SURGERY
      • SUMMARY
      • References