Author: Christopher Wilcox, M.D., Ph.D., F.R.C.P.(U.K.), F.A.C.P., C. Tisher, M.D.
Affiliation: Georgetown University; Washington, DC
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date: 2009
ISBN 10: 0781795303
ISBN 13: 9780781795302
Edition: 6th


Now in its Sixth Edition, this manual offers a concise, thorough guide for treating patients with a wide range of kidney disorders and hypertension. It features brief, focused chapters with abundant tables and algorithms. Coverage includes practical information on renal transplant and dialysis, the main classes of drugs used for hypertension and renal protection, and how to prescribe for patients with renal diseases. Chapters are all written by clinicians with extensive experience in managing the disorders. This completely updated edition includes new medications, new imaging modalities such as MR angiography, current terminology, and up-to-date information on diabetic kidney disorders.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • Contributing Authors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments

I Approach to the Patient with Renal Disease

    Renal Structure in Relation to Function

    • I. Gross Anatomy
    • II. Microscopic Anatomy
    • III. Suggested Readings

    Evaluation of Kidney Structure: Radiology and Biopsy

    • I. Radiologic Assessment
    • II. Kidney Biopsy
    • III. Suggested Readings

    Clinical and Laboratory Evaluation of Renal Disease and Fluid Status

    • I. History and Physical Examination
    • II. Biochemical Tests
    • III. Nuclear Medicine Tests
    • IV. Examination of the Urine
    • V. Biochemical Analysis of Urine
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Proteinuria and the Nephrotic Syndrome

    • I. Pathophysiology
    • II. Interpretation of Proteinuria
    • III. Nephrotic Syndrome
    • IV. Investigations
    • V. Management
    • VI. Suggested Readings

Glomerular and Tubulointerstitial Diseases and Vasculitis

    Diabetic Nephropathy

    • I. Introduction
    • II. Epidemiology
    • III. Pathogenesis and Pathology
    • IV. Differential Diagnosis
    • V. Treatment and Prevention
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Glomerular Diseases

    • I. Clinical Presentation and Laboratory Evaluation
    • II. Glomerulonephritis and Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis
    • III. Nephrotic Syndrome
    • IV. Suggested Readings

    Renal Involvement in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    • I. Clinical Presentation of Lupus Nephritis
    • II. Management and Prognosis
    • III. Suggested Readings

    Renal Vasculitis

    • I. Wegener’s Granulomatosis
    • II. Polyarteritis Nodosa
    • III. Microscopic Polyarteritis
    • IV. Henoch–Schönlein Purpura
    • V. Suggested Readings

    Renal Involvement in Thrombotic Microangiopathy, Scleroderma, Multiple Myeloma, and Amyloidosis

    • I. Thrombotic Microangiopathy
    • II. Progressive Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
    • III. Multiple Myeloma
    • IV. Amyloid
    • V. Suggested Readings

    Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    • I. Definition and Description
    • II. Pathogenesis
    • III. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
    • IV. Treatment of Acute Tubulointerstitial Nephritis
    • V. Treatment of Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephriti
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    HIV Infection and Kidney Disease

    • I. Acute Renal Failure in the HIV-Infected Patient
    • II. HIV Nephropathy and Other Glomerular Diseases As sociated with HIV Infection
    • III. Management and Prognosis
    • IV. Dialysis Procedures in HIV-Infected Patients
    • V. Suggested Readings

III Hereditary Disease

    Renal Cystic and Other Hereditary Diseases

    • I. Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
    • II. Acquired Cystic Disease
    • III. Medullary Sponge Kidney
    • IV. Medullary Cystic Disease
    • V. Von Hippel–Lindau Disease
    • VI. Tuberous Sclerosis
    • VII. Sickle Cell Nephropathy
    • VIII. Alport’s Syndrome
    • IX. Familial Thin Membrane Disease
    • X. Nail–Patella Syndrome
    • XI. Suggested Readings

IV Disorders of Water, Electrolytes, and Acid–Base Regulation

    Disorders of Water Balance

    • I. Normal Water Balance
    • II. Hyponatremia (Sodium Concentration <135 mEq/L)
    • III. Hypernatremia (Sodium Concentration >145 mEq/L)
    • IV. Suggested Readings

    Potassium Disorders

    • I. Physiology
    • II. Hypokalemia
    • III. Hyperkalemia
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Acid–Base Disorders

    • I. Terminology
    • II. Pathophysiology
    • III. Metabolic Acidosis
    • IV. Respiratory Acidosis
    • V. Metabolic Alkalosis
    • VI. Respiratory Alkalosis
    • VII. Mixed Acid–Base Disorders
    • VIII. Suggested Readings

    Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium Disorders

    • I. Disorders of Calcium Homeostasis
    • II. Phosphorus
    • III. Magnesium
    • IV. Suggested Readings

V Disease of the Urinary System

    Renal Stone Disease

    • I. Epidemiology
    • II. Physiology and Pathophysiology
    • III. Clinical Presentation
    • IV. Diagnosis
    • V. Management
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Urinary Tract Infections

    • I. Epidemiology
    • II. Risk Factors
    • III. Pathogenesis
    • IV. Clinical Presentation and Diagnosis
    • IV. Major Urinary Tract Infection Syndromes
    • V. Suggested Readings

VI Hypertension

    Approach to the Hypertensive Patient

    • I. Incidence
    • II. Risks
    • III. Classification
    • IV. Etiologic Factors in Essential Hypertension
    • V. Clinical Presentation of Hypertension
    • VI. Questions to Answer in Each Hypertensive Patient
    • VII. Routine Laboratory Tests
    • VIII. Special Investigations
    • IX. Suggested Readings

    Secondary Forms of Hypertension

    • I. Renal Parenchymal Disease
    • II. Renovascular Hypertension
    • III. Pheochromocytoma
    • IV. Primary Hyperaldosteronism
    • V. Other Causes of Secondary Hypertension
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Hypertension and Renal Disease in Pregnancy

    • I. Specific Renal Problems in Pregnancy
    • II. Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy
    • III. Suggested Readings

VII Drug Use in Hypertension and Renal Disease


    • I. Classes of Diuretics
    • II. Diuretic Resistance
    • III. Suggested Readings

    Alpha- and Beta-Blockers and Sympatholytics

    • I. Beta-Blockers
    • II. Alpha-Blockers
    • III. Alpha-Agonists
    • IV. Suggested Readings

    Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, Renin Antagonists, and Mineralocorticosteroid Antagonists

    • I. Renin–Angiotensin–Aldosterone System
    • II. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
    • III. Angiotensin Receptor Blockers
    • IV. Renin Antagonists
    • V. Mineralocorticosteroid Receptor Antagonists
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Calcium Channel Blockers and Other Vasodilators

    • I. Calcium Channel Blockers
    • II. Other Vasodilators
    • III. Suggested Readings

    Urgent, Emergent, and Resistant Hypertension

    • I. Definitions
    • II. Hypertensive Emergencies and Urgencies
    • III. Resistant Hypertension
    • IV. Suggested Readings

    Dopaminergic and Pressor Therapy

    • I. Introduction
    • II. Pharmacology and Physiology
    • III. Prevention and Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury
    • IV. Suggested Readings

    Drug Use in Renal Failure

    • I. Drug Bioavailability and Absorption
    • II. Drug Distribution
    • III. Clearance
    • IV. Prescribing for the Patient with Renal Insufficiency
    • VII. Peritoneal Dialysis of Drugs
    • VIII. Details of Drug Dosing in Renal Failure
    • IX. Suggested Readings

VIII Renal Failure: Diagnosis and Management

    Acute Renal Failure

    • I. Classification of Acute Kidney Injury
    • II. Making the Diagnosis of Acute Renal Failure
    • III. Management
    • IV. Prognosis
    • V. Suggested Readings

    Chronic Renal Failure

    • I. Pathophysiology
    • II. Clinical Manifestations and Their Management
    • III. Suggested Readings

    Prevention of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Cardiovascular Complications

    • I. Mechanisms of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • II. Risk Factors for Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • III. Prevention of Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • IV. Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease
    • V. Preparation for Renal Replacement Therapy
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Renal Disease in Patients with Liver Disease

    • I. Pathophysiology
    • II. Clinical Presentation
    • III. Differential Diagnosis
    • IV. Treatment
    • V. Vasoactive Drugs
    • VI. Dialysis Therapy
    • VII. Hepatic Transplantation
    • VIII. Suggested Readings

    Hemodialysis and Continuous Therapies

    • I. Indications for Hemodialysis
    • II. Vascular Access
    • III. Hemodialysis: The Procedure
    • IV. Aims of Dialytic Therapy
    • V. Ultrafiltration
    • VI. Extracorporeal Therapies in the Intensive Care Unit Setting
    • VII. Complications of Hemodialysis
    • VIII. Extracorporeal Therapies for Drug Overdose
    • IX. Other Considerations in the Care of Dialysis Patients
    • X. Suggested Readings

    Peritoneal Dialysis

    • I. Overview
    • II. Principles of Solute and Fluid Removal
    • III. Indications for Peritoneal Dialysis
    • IV. Technical Aspects of Peritoneal Dialysis
    • V. Complications of Peritoneal Dialysis
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Renal Transplantation

    • I. Immune Response
    • II. Recipient Evaluation
    • III. Donor Evaluation
    • IV. Immunosuppressive Drugs
    • V. Surgical Procedure
    • VI. Early Postoperative Course
    • VII. Allograft Dysfunction
    • VIII. Long-Term Complications of Transplantation
    • IX. Suggested Readings

    Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease

    • I. Definition
    • II. Monitoring of Iron Levels
    • III. Treatment Guidelines
    • VI. Suggested Readings

    Nutrition in Renal Failure

    • I. General Nutritional Concepts
    • II. Specific Recommendations
    • III. Summary
    • IV. Suggested Readings