CLINICAL ANESTHESIA This title has been archived.

Author: Paul Barash, MD, Bruce Cullen, MD, Robert Stoelting, MD
Affiliation: Yale University, New Haven, CT
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date: 2006
ISBN 10: 0781757452
ISBN 13: 9780781757454
Edition: 5th

Description:

The widely acclaimed text Clinical Anesthesia is now in its Fifth Edition, with thoroughly updated coverage and a new, more user-friendly design. More than 100 leading experts cover every aspect of contemporary perioperative medicine in one comprehensive, clinically focused, clear, concise, and accessible volume. New chapters in this edition cover genomic basis of perioperative medicine, office-based anesthesia, and disaster preparedness and bioterrorism. A new two-color page design enables readers to spot crucial information quickly. Each chapter opens with a numbered list of key points and the numbers are used in the margins to help readers locate information on those points.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • DEDICATION
  • CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
  • PREFACE

SECTION I INTRODUCTION TO ANESTHESIA PRACTICE

    CHAPTER 1: THE HISTORY OF ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • ANESTHESIA BEFORE ETHER
    • THE SECOND GENERATION OF INHALED ANESTHETICS
    • FLUORINATED ANESTHETICS
    • REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
    • SPINAL ANESTHESIA
    • ANESTHESIA MACHINES AND MECHANICAL VENTILATION
    • SAFETY STANDARDS
    • PATIENT MONITORING
    • INTRAVENOUS MEDICATIONS IN ANESTHESIA
    • INDUCTION AGENTS
    • BLOOD, FLUIDS, AND HEMODYNAMIC CONTROL
    • ANESTHESIA ORGANIZATION AND EDUCATION
    • ORGANIZED ANESTHESIOLOGY
    • ANESTHESIA PRACTICE TODAY AND TOMORROW
    • References

    CHAPTER 2: PRACTICE AND OPERATING ROOM MANAGEMENT

    • KEY POINTS
    • ADMINISTRATIVE COMPONENTS OF ANESTHESIOLOGY PRACTICE
    • PRACTICE ESSENTIALS
    • OPERATING ROOM MANAGEMENT
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 3: EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND STATISTICS

    • KEY POINTS
    • INTRODUCTION
    • DESIGN OF RESEARCH STUDIES
    • STATISTICAL TESTING
    • READING JOURNAL ARTICLES
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 4: OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH

    • KEY POINTS
    • PHYSICAL HAZARDS
    • INFECTION HAZARDS
    • EMOTIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • References

    CHAPTER 5: PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY, QUALITY IMPROVEMENT, AND ANESTHETIC RISK

    • KEY POINTS
    • PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY
    • RISK MANAGEMENT AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
    • QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN ANESTHESIA PRACTICE
    • MORTALITY AND MAJOR MORBIDITY RELATED TO ANESTHESIA
    • References

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF ANESTHESIA PRACTICE

    CHAPTER 6: CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • WHAT IS ANESTHESIA?
    • HOW IS ANESTHESIA MEASURED?
    • WHERE IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DO ANESTHETICS WORK?
    • HOW DO ANESTHETICS INTERFERE WITH THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM?
    • ANESTHETIC ACTIONS ON ION CHANNELS
    • WHAT IS THE CHEMICAL NATURE OF ANESTHETIC TARGET SITES?
    • HOW ARE THE EFFECTS OF ANESTHETICS ON MOLECULAR TARGETS LINKED TO ANESTHESIA IN THE INTACT ORGANISM?
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 7: GENOMIC BASIS OF PERIOPERATIVE MEDICINE

    • KEY POINTS
    • GENETIC BASIS OF DISEASE
    • GENOMICS AND PERIOPERATIVE RISK PROFILING
    • PHARMACOGENOMICS AND ANESTHESIA
    • GENOMICS AND CRITICAL CARE
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 8: ELECTRICAL AND FIRE SAFETY

    • KEY POINTS
    • PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
    • ELECTRICAL SHOCK HAZARDS
    • ELECTRICAL POWER: GROUNDED
    • ELECTRICAL POWER: UNGROUNDED
    • THE LINE ISOLATION MONITOR
    • GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
    • MICROSHOCK
    • ELECTROSURGERY
    • ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS
    • CONSTRUCTION OF NEW OPERATING ROOMS
    • FIRE SAFETY
    • References

    CHAPTER 9: ACID-BASE, FLUIDS, AND ELECTROLYTES

    • KEY POINTS
    • ACID-BASE INTERPRETATION AND TREATMENT
    • PRACTICAL APPROACH TO ACID-BASE INTERPRETATION
    • FLUID MANAGEMENT
    • ELECTROLYTES
    • References

    CHAPTER 10: HEMOTHERAPY AND HEMOSTASIS

    • KEY POINTS
    • THE RISKS OF BLOOD PRODUCT ADMINISTRATION
    • BLOOD PRODUCTS AND TRANSFUSION THRESHOLDS
    • BLOOD CONSERVATION STRATEGIES
    • COLLECTION AND PREPARATION OF BLOOD PRODUCTS FOR TRANSFUSION
    • THE HEMOSTATIC MECHANISM
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE HEMOSTATIC MECHANISM
    • DISORDERS OF HEMOSTASIS: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • References

SECTION III BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PHARMACOLOGY IN ANESTHESIA PRACTICE

    CHAPTER 11: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    • KEY POINTS
    • TRANSFER OF DRUGS ACROSS MEMBRANES
    • DRUG ABSORPTION
    • DRUG DISTRIBUTION
    • DRUG ELIMINATION
    • DRUG METABOLISM
    • BINDING OF DRUGS TO PLASMA PROTEINS
    • PHARMACOKINETIC PRINCIPLES
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES
    • DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • CLINICAL APPLICATION OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS TO ADMINISTRATION OF INTRAVENOUS AGENTS
    • References

    CHAPTER 12: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY

    • KEY POINTS
    • AUTONOMIC PHARMACOLOGY
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PURPOSE
    • FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: NEUROTRANSMISSION
    • RECEPTORS
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM REFLEXES AND INTERACTIONS
    • CLINICAL AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM PHARMACOLOGY
    • References

    CHAPTER 13: NONOPIOID INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY OF INTRAVENOUS HYPNOTICS
    • COMPARATIVE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGIC PROPERTIES
    • CLINICAL USES OF INTRAVENOUS ANESTHETICS
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 14: OPIOIDS

    • KEY POINTS
    • HISTORY
    • TERMINOLOGY
    • ENDOGENOUS OPIOIDS AND OPIOID RECEPTORS
    • STRUCTURE–ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS
    • PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS
    • MORPHINE
    • MEPERIDINE
    • METHADONE
    • FENTANYL
    • SUFENTANIL
    • ALFENTANIL
    • REMIFENTANIL
    • PARTIAL AGONISTS AND MIXED AGONIST–ANTAGONISTS
    • USE OF OPIOIDS IN CLINICAL ANESTHESIA
    • References

    CHAPTER 15: INHALATION ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • PHARMACOKINETIC PRINCIPLES
    • CLINICAL OVERVIEW OF CURRENT INHALED ANESTHETICS
    • NEUROPHARMACOLOGY OF INHALED ANESTHETICS
    • THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    • THE PULMONARY SYSTEM
    • HEPATIC EFFECTS
    • NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM AND MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA
    • GENETIC/CELLULAR EFFECTS
    • OBSTETRIC EFFECTS
    • ANESTHETIC DEGRADATION BY CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORBERS
    • ANESTHETIC METABOLISM
    • CLINICAL UTILITY OF VOLATILE ANESTHETICS
    • PHARMACOECONOMICS AND VALUE-BASED DECISIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • References

    CHAPTER 16: NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS

    • KEY POINTS
    • PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
    • NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS
    • DEPOLARIZING DRUGS: SUCCINYLCHOLINE
    • NONDEPOLARIZING DRUGS
    • DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • ALTERED RESPONSES TO NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS
    • MONITORING NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKADE
    • ANTAGONISM OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCK
    • References

    CHAPTER 17: LOCAL ANESTHETICS

    • KEY POINTS
    • INTRODUCTION
    • MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
    • PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACODYNAMICS
    • PHARMACOKINETICS OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
    • CLINICAL USE OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
    • TOXICITY OF LOCAL ANESTHETICS
    • References

SECTION IV PREPARING FOR ANESTHESIA

    CHAPTER 18: PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT

    • KEY POINTS
    • CHANGING CONCEPTS IN PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • APPROACH TO THE HEALTHY PATIENT
    • INDICATIONS FOR FURTHER CARDIAC TESTING
    • PULMONARY DISEASE
    • PREOPERATIVE LABORATORY TESTING
    • SUMMARY
    • PREOPERATIVE MEDICATION
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL PREPARATION
    • PHARMACOLOGIC PREPARATION
    • DIFFERENCES IN PREOPERATIVE MEDICATION BETWEEN PEDIATRIC AND ADULT PATIENTS
    • References

    CHAPTER 19: ANESTHESIA FOR PATIENTS WITH RARE AND COEXISTING DISEASES

    • KEY POINTS
    • MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES
    • ANEMIAS
    • COLLAGEN VASCULAR DISEASES
    • SKIN DISORDERS
    • References

    CHAPTER 20: MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA AND OTHER PHARMACOGENETIC DISORDERS

    • KEY POINTS
    • MALIGNANT HYPERTHERMIA
    • OTHER INHERITED DISORDERS
    • DISORDERS OF PLASMA CHOLINESTERASE
    • THE PORPHYRIAS
    • GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASES
    • THE MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSES
    • OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA
    • RILEY-DAY SYNDROME (FAMILIAL DYSAUTONOMIA)
    • References

    CHAPTER 21: DELIVERY SYSTEMS FOR INHALED ANESTHETICS

    • KEY POINTS
    • INTRODUCTION
    • ANESTHESIA WORKSTATION STANDARDS AND PRE-USE PROCEDURES
    • STANDARDS FOR ANESTHESIA MACHINES AND WORKSTATIONS
    • CHECKING THE ANESTHESIA WORKSTATION
    • VAPORIZERS
    • ANESTHETIC BREATHING CIRCUITS
    • CO2 ABSORBENTS
    • ANESTHESIA VENTILATORS
    • ANESTHESIA WORKSTATION VARIATIONS
    • SCAVENGING SYSTEMS
    • References
    • APPENDIX A
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT

    CHAPTER 22: AIRWAY MANAGEMENT

    • KEY POINTS
    • PERSPECTIVES ON AIRWAY MANAGEMENT
    • CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF THE AIRWAY
    • THE DIFFICULT AIRWAY
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 23: PATIENT POSITIONING

    • KEY POINTS
    • DORSAL DECUBITUS POSITIONS
    • BRACHIAL PLEXUS AND UPPER EXTREMITY INJURIES
    • LATERAL DECUBITUS POSITIONS
    • VENTRAL DECUBITUS (PRONE) POSITIONS
    • HEAD-ELEVATED POSITIONS
    • PERIOPERATIVE PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES
    • References

    CHAPTER 24: MONITORING THE ANESTHETIZED PATIENT

    • KEY POINTS
    • INSPIRATORY AND EXPIRED GAS MONITORING: OXYGEN
    • MONITORING OF EXPIRED GASES
    • OXYGENATION MONITORING
    • BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING
    • NONINVASIVE TECHNIQUES FOR CARDIAC OUTPUT
    • TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • MONITORING NEUROLOGIC FUNCTION
    • TEMPERATURE MONITORING
    • FUTURE TRENDS IN MONITORING
    • References

SECTION V MANAGEMENT OF ANESTHESIA

    CHAPTER 25: EPIDURAL AND SPINAL ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • ANATOMY
    • TECHNIQUE
    • PHARMACOLOGY
    • PHYSIOLOGY
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • SPINAL OR EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA?
    • References

    CHAPTER 26: PERIPHERAL NERVE BLOCKADE

    • KEY POINTS
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • PATIENT PREPARATION
    • SPECIFIC TECHNIQUES
    • References

    CHAPTER 27: ANESTHESIA FOR NEUROSURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • NEUROPHYSIOLOGY AND NEUROANESTHESIA
    • NEUROANESTHESIA
    • BRAIN PROTECTION
    • MONITORING
    • NEURORADIOLOGY
    • ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF NEUROSURGICAL PATIENTS
    • COMMON INTRACRANIAL PATHOLOGY
    • HEAD INJURY
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    CHAPTER 28: RESPIRATORY FUNCTION IN ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE LUNGS
    • LUNG MECHANICS
    • CONTROL OF VENTILATION
    • OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE TRANSPORT
    • PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTING
    • ANESTHESIA AND OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
    • ANESTHESIA AND RESTRICTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
    • EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON PULMONARY FUNCTION
    • PULMONARY FUNCTION POSTOPERATIVELY
    • References

    CHAPTER 29: ANESTHESIA FOR THORACIC SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • PREOPERATIVE PREPARATION
    • INTRAOPERATIVE MONITORING
    • ONE-LUNG VENTILATION
    • MANAGEMENT OF ONE-LUNG VENTILATION
    • CHOICE OF ANESTHESIA FOR THORACIC SURGERY
    • HYPOXIC PULMONARY VASOCONSTRICTION
    • ANESTHESIA FOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
    • DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES FOR MEDIASTINAL MASS
    • ANESTHESIA FOR SPECIAL SITUATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT AND COMPLICATIONS
    • References

    CHAPTER 30: CARDIOVASCULAR ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY

    • KEY POINTS
    • ANATOMY
    • CARDIOVASCULAR DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
    • PHYSIOLOGY
    • References

    CHAPTER 31: ANESTHESIA FOR CARDIAC SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE
    • VALVULAR HEART DISEASE
    • CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS
    • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • MINIMALLY INVASIVE CARDIAC SURGERY
    • POSTOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • ANESTHESIA FOR CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • References

    CHAPTER 32: ANESTHESIA FOR VASCULAR SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • GOALS OF ANESTHESIA
    • VASCULAR DISEASE: EPIDEMIOLOGIC, MEDICAL, AND SURGICAL ASPECTS
    • CAROTID ENDARTERECTOMY
    • AORTIC RECONSTRUCTION
    • LOWER-EXTREMITY REVASCULARIZATION
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 33: ANESTHESIA AND THE EYE

    • KEY POINTS
    • OCULAR ANATOMY
    • OCULAR PHYSIOLOGY
    • EFFECTS OF ANESTHESIA AND ADJUVANT DRUGS ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE
    • OCULOCARDIAC REFLEX
    • ANESTHETIC RAMIFICATIONS OF OPHTHALMIC DRUGS
    • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT IN SPECIFIC SITUATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE OCULAR COMPLICATIONS
    • References

    CHAPTER 34: ANESTHESIA FOR OTOLARYNGOLOGIC SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • EVALUATING THE AIRWAY
    • ANESTHESIA FOR PEDIATRIC EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT SURGERY
    • ANESTHESIA FOR PEDIATRIC AND ADULT SURGERY
    • SECURING THE AIRWAY
    • References

    CHAPTER 35: THE RENAL SYSTEM AND ANESTHESIA FOR UROLOGIC SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • RENAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    • RENAL DYSFUNCTION AND ANESTHESIA
    • PRESERVATION OF RENAL FUNCTION
    • ANESTHESIA FOR ENDOUROLOGIC PROCEDURES
    • LASER SURGERY IN UROLOGY
    • UROLOGIC LAPAROSCOPY
    • RADICAL CANCER SURGERY
    • References

    CHAPTER 36: ANESTHESIA AND OBESITY

    • KEY POINTS
    • OBESITY
    • PHARMACOLOGY
    • MEDICAL THERAPY FOR OBESITY
    • BARIATRIC SURGERY
    • PREOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • AIRWAY
    • INTRAOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • RESUSCITATION
    • References

    CHAPTER 37: ANESTHESIA AND GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS

    • KEY POINTS
    • GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
    • REDUCING PERIOPERATIVE ASPIRATION RISK
    • THE INTESTINES
    • CARCINOID TUMORS
    • References

    CHAPTER 38: ANESTHESIA FOR MINIMALLY INVASIVE PROCEDURES

    • KEY POINTS
    • MINIMAL ACCESS INTRA-ABDOMINAL GYNECOLOGIC PROCEDURES
    • SURGICAL TECHNIQUE
    • RESPIRATORY EFFECTS
    • ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUE
    • SPECIFIC INTRAOPERATIVE COMPLICATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • AMBULATORY LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY
    • VIDEO-ASSISTED THORACIC SURGERY (VATS)
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    CHAPTER 39: ANESTHESIA AND THE LIVER

    • KEY POINTS
    • HEPATIC ANATOMY
    • REGULATION OF HEPATIC BLOOD FLOW
    • MAJOR PHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTIONS OF THE LIVER
    • ASSESSMENT OF HEPATIC FUNCTION
    • HEPATIC AND HEPATOBILIARY DISEASES
    • PARENCHYMAL DISEASES
    • NONPHARMACOLOGIC CAUSES OF PERIOPERATIVE LIVER DYSFUNCTION
    • CHRONIC HEPATITIS
    • CIRRHOSIS: A PARADIGM FOR END-STAGE PARENCHYMAL LIVER DISEASE
    • HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA
    • PREGNANCY-RELATED DISORDERS
    • CHOLESTATIC DISEASE
    • PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
    • CAUSES OF POSTOPERATIVE LIVER DYSFUNCTION UNRELATED TO PERIOPERATIVE FACTORS
    • CONCLUSION: PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF POSTOPERATIVE LIVER DYSFUNCTION
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    • References

    CHAPTER 40: ANESTHESIA FOR ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT
    • CHOICE OF ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUE
    • SURGERY TO THE SPINE
    • SURGERY TO THE UPPER EXTREMITIES
    • SURGERY TO THE LOWER EXTREMITIES
    • MICROVASCULAR SURGERY
    • PEDIATRIC ORTHOPAEDIC SURGERY
    • OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
    • References

    CHAPTER 41: ANESTHESIA AND THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    • KEY POINTS
    • THYROID GLAND
    • PARATHYROID GLANDS
    • ADRENAL CORTEX
    • ADRENAL MEDULLA
    • DIABETES MELLITUS
    • PITUITARY GLAND
    • ENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO SURGICAL STRESS
    • References

    CHAPTER 42: OBSTETRIC ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES OF PREGNANCY
    • PLACENTAL TRANSFER AND FETAL EXPOSURE TO ANESTHETIC DRUGS
    • ANESTHESIA FOR LABOR AND VAGINAL DELIVERY
    • ANESTHESIA FOR CESAREAN SECTION
    • ANESTHETIC COMPLICATIONS
    • MANAGEMENT OF HIGH-RISK PARTURIENTS
    • PRETERM DELIVERY
    • HIV AND AIDS
    • SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    • FETAL AND MATERNAL MONITORING
    • NEWBORN RESUSCITATION IN THE DELIVERY ROOM
    • ANESTHESIA FOR NONOBSTETRIC SURGERY IN THE PREGNANT WOMAN
    • References

    CHAPTER 43: NEONATAL ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF THE INFANT AND THE TRANSITION PERIOD
    • ANATOMIC AND MATURATIONAL FACTORS OF NEONATES AND THEIR CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
    • ANESTHETIC DRUGS AND THE NEONATE
    • ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF THE NEONATE
    • SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • SURGICAL PROCEDURES IN NEONATES
    • References

    CHAPTER 44: PEDIATRIC ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • THE PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • ANESTHETIC AGENTS
    • FLUID AND BLOOD PRODUCT MANAGEMENT
    • AIRWAY MANAGEMENT
    • PEDIATRIC BREATHING CIRCUITS
    • MONITORING
    • PAIN MANAGEMENT AND REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
    • POSTANESTHESIA CARE
    • References

    CHAPTER 45: ANESTHESIA FOR THE GERIATRIC PATIENT

    • KEY POINTS
    • CONCEPTS OF AGING AND GERIATRICS
    • AGING AND ORGAN FUNCTION
    • CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION
    • PHARMACOKINETICS, HEPATORENAL, AND IMMUNE FUNCTION
    • METABOLISM AND BODY COMPOSITION
    • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • ANALGESIC AND ANESTHETIC REQUIREMENTS
    • PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT AND OUTCOME
    • References

    CHAPTER 46: ANESTHESIA FOR AMBULATORY SURGERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • PLACE, PROCEDURES, AND PATIENT SELECTION
    • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION AND REDUCTION OF PATIENT ANXIETY
    • MANAGING THE ANESTHETIC: PREMEDICATION
    • INTRAOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT: CHOICE OF ANESTHETIC METHOD
    • MANAGEMENT OF POSTANESTHESIA CARE
    • References

    CHAPTER 47: MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE

    • KEY POINTS
    • TERMINOLOGY
    • PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT
    • TECHNIQUES OF MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE
    • DRUG INTERACTIONS IN MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE
    • SPECIFIC DRUGS USED FOR MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE
    • RESPIRATORY FUNCTION AND SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS
    • SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN ADMINISTRATION
    • MONITORING DURING MONITORED ANESTHESIA CARE
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 48: TRAUMA AND BURNS

    • KEY POINTS
    • INITIAL EVALUATION AND RESUSCITATION
    • EARLY MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC INJURIES
    • OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
    • EARLY POSTOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • References

    CHAPTER 49: THE ALLERGIC RESPONSE

    • KEY POINTS
    • BASIC IMMUNOLOGIC PRINCIPLES
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY RESPONSES (ALLERGY)
    • ANAPHYLACTIC REACTIONS
    • PERIOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT OF THE PATIENT WITH ALLERGIES
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    CHAPTER 50: DRUG INTERACTIONS

    • KEY POINTS
    • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • PROBLEMS CREATED BY DRUG–DRUG INTERACTION
    • WHY COMBINE DRUGS?
    • PHARMACEUTICAL INTERACTIONS
    • PHARMACOKINETIC INTERACTIONS
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS
    • STUDYING DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS AFFECTING HEMODYNAMICS
    • PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTIONS AFFECTING ANALGESIA OR HYPNOSIS
    • MODELS FOR THE FUTURE: DRUG INTERACTION DURING TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA
    • References

    CHAPTER 51: ANESTHESIA PROVIDED AT ALTERNATE SITES

    • KEY POINTS
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • ANESTHESIA CARE
    • RADIOLOGY AND RADIATION THERAPY
    • SPECIFIC RADIOLOGICAL PROCEDURES
    • CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
    • CARDIOVERSION
    • GASTROENTEROLOGY
    • ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY
    • DENTAL SURGERY
    • TRANSPORT OF PATIENTS
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    CHAPTER 52: OFFICE-BASED ANESTHESIA

    • KEY POINTS
    • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
    • OFFICE SAFETY
    • PATIENT SELECTION
    • SURGEON SELECTION
    • OFFICE SELECTION
    • PROCEDURE SELECTION
    • ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUES
    • POSTANESTHESIA CARE UNIT
    • REGULATIONS
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CHAPTER 53: ANESTHESIA FOR ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION

    • KEY POINTS
    • ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF ORGAN DONORS
    • IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUGS
    • RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
    • LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
    • PANCREAS AND ISLET TRANSPLANTATION
    • SMALL BOWEL AND MULTIVISCERAL TRANSPLANTATION
    • LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
    • HEART TRANSPLANTATION
    • References

SECTION VI POSTANESTHESIA AND CONSULTANT PRACTICE

    CHAPTER 54: POSTOPERATIVE RECOVERY

    • KEY POINTS
    • ASSESSING THE VALUE OF POSTANESTHESIA CARE
    • SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE LEVEL OF POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • SAFETY IN THE POSTANESTHESIA CARE UNIT
    • ADMISSION TO THE POSTANESTHESIA CARE UNIT
    • POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT
    • DISCHARGE CRITERIA
    • CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE PULMONARY DYSFUNCTION
    • POSTOPERATIVE RENAL COMPLICATIONS
    • METABOLIC COMPLICATIONS
    • MISCELLANEOUS COMPLICATIONS
    • References

    CHAPTER 55: MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE POSTOPERATIVE PAIN

    • KEY POINTS
    • FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PAIN
    • PHARMACOLOGY OF POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT
    • NEW METHODS OF OPIOID ADMINISTRATION
    • METHODS OF ANALGESIA
    • ORGANIZATION OF A POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA SERVICE
    • SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PEDIATRIC ACUTE PAIN MANAGEMENT
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACUTE (EUDYNIA) AND CHRONIC PAIN (MALDYNIA)
    • SUMMARY
    • References
    • APPENDIX 55-1 SOLUTIONS AND RATES OF PATIENT-CONTROLLED EPIDURAL ANALGESIA
    • APPENDIX 55-2 POLICY AND PROCEDURES FOR INITIATION AND NURSING CARE OF PATIENTS WITH POSTOPERATIVE EPIDURAL ANALGESIA
    • APPENDIX 55-3 POSTOPERATIVE EPIDURAL ANALGESIA ORDER SHEET
    • APPENDIX 55-4 PATIENT-CONTROLLED ANALGESIA SERVICE PROTOCOL FOR POSTSURGICAL PAIN RELIEF

    CHAPTER 56: CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT

    • KEY POINTS
    • PAIN PATHWAYS AND MECHANISMS
    • ANATOMIC PATHWAYS
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL MECHANISMS
    • MANAGEMENT OF COMMON CHRONIC PAIN SYNDROMES
    • PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PAIN
    • CANCER PAIN
    • PAIN IN HIV/AIDS
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR CHRONIC PAIN
    • INTERVENTIONAL PAIN MANAGEMENT
    • CONCLUDING REMARKS
    • References

    CHAPTER 57: ANESTHESIA AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

    • KEY POINTS
    • ANESTHESIOLOGISTS AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
    • NEUROLOGIC AND NEUROSURGICAL CRITICAL CARE
    • CARDIOVASCULAR AND HEMODYNAMIC ASPECTS OF CRITICAL CARE
    • ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    • ACUTE RENAL FAILURE
    • ENDOCRINE ASPECTS OF CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE
    • ANEMIA AND TRANSFUSION THERAPY IN CRITICAL ILLNESS
    • NUTRITION IN THE CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT
    • SEDATION OF THE CRITICALLY ILL PATIENT
    • COMPLICATIONS IN THE ICU: DETECTION, PREVENTION, AND THERAPY
    • References

    CHAPTER 58: CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION

    • KEY POINTS
    • HISTORY
    • SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM
    • ORGANIZING A SOLUTION
    • ETHICAL ISSUES: DO NOT RESUSCITATE ORDERS IN THE OPERATING ROOM
    • BASIC LIFE SUPPORT
    • ADVANCED CARDIAC LIFE SUPPORT
    • PEDIATRIC CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
    • POSTRESUSCITATION CARE
    • References

    CHAPTER 59: DISASTER PREPAREDNESS AND WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION

    • KEY POINTS
    • JOINT COMMISSION ON ACCREDITATION OF HEALTHCARE ORGANIZATIONS
    • DISASTER PREPAREDNESS
    • NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS
    • BIOLOGICAL DISASTERS
    • CHEMICAL
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    APPENDIX ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY