DERMATOLOGY

Author: Jean Bolognia, MD, Joseph Jorizzo, MD, Julie Schaffer, MD
Affiliation:
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Publication Date: 2012
ISBN 10: 0723435715
ISBN 13: 9780723435716
Edition: 3rd

Description:

Dermatology, edited by world authorities Jean L. Bolognia, MD, Joseph L. Jorizzo, MD, and Julie V. Schaffer, MD, is an all- encompassing medical reference book that puts the latest practices in dermatologic diagnosis and treatment at your fingertips. It delivers more comprehensive coverage of basic science, clinical practice, pediatric dermatology, and dermatologic surgery than you'll find in any other source. Whether you're a resident or an experienced practitioner, you'll have the in-depth, expert, up-to- the-minute answers you need to overcome any challenge you face in practice. Elsevier does not support Expert Consult access for institutional customers

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • Preface
  • Notice
  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • User Guide
  • DEDICATION
  • Acknowledgments

SECTION 1 OVERVIEW OF BASIC SCIENCE

    0: Basic Principles of Dermatology

    • INTRODUCTION TO CLINICAL DERMATOLOGY
    • THE ROLE OF DERMATOPATHOLOGY IN CLINICOPATHOLOGIC CORRELATION
    • INTRODUCTION TO THE USE OF DERMOSCOPY (DERMATOSCOPY)
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    1: Anatomy and Physiology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    • REFERENCES

    2: Skin Development and Maintenance

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EMBRYONIC ORIGIN OF THE SKIN
    • EPIDERMAL DEVELOPMENT
    • DEVELOPMENT OF SPECIALIZED CELLS WITHIN THE EPIDERMIS
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE DERMIS AND SUBCUTIS
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE DERMAL– EPIDERMAL JUNCTION
    • DEVELOPMENT OF SKIN APPENDAGES
    • SKIN STEM CELLS
    • PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS OF GENODERMATOSES
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF SKIN DEVELOPMENT IN POSTNATAL LIFE
    • REFERENCES

    3: Molecular Biology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

    4: Immunology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • INNATE IMMUNE RESPONSE
    • ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 2 PRURITUS

    5: Cutaneous Neurophysiology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PRURITUS PATHWAYS
    • MEDIATORS OF PRURITUS
    • TREATMENT OF PRURITUS
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    6: Pruritus and Dysesthesia

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • EVALUATION OF THE PATIENT
    • PRURITUS IN DERMATOLOGIC DISEASE
    • DERMATOSES THAT RESULT FROM PRURITUS AND ASSOCIATED BEHAVIORS
    • PRURITUS VARIANTS
    • PRURITUS IN SYSTEMIC DISEASE
    • PRURITUS IN PREGNANCY
    • PHARMACOLOGIC PRURITUS
    • PSYCHOGENIC PRURITUS
    • NEUROLOGIC ETIOLOGIES OF PRURITUS AND DYSESTHESIA
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    7: Psychocutaneous Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • OVERVIEW
    • COMMON PSYCHODERMATOLOGIC CONDITIONS
    • TREATMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 3 PAPULOSQUAMOUS AND ECZEMATOUS DERMATOSES

    8: Psoriasis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND GENETICS
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • PATHOLOGY
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES
    • TABLE 8.1 – FURTHER REFERENCES

    9: Other Papulosquamous Disorders

    • SMALL PLAQUE PARAPSORIASIS AND LARGE PLAQUE PARAPSORIASIS
    • PITYRIASIS LICHENOIDES ET VARIOLIFORMIS ACUTA AND PITYRIASIS LICHENOIDES CHRONICA
    • PITYRIASIS RUBRA PILARIS
    • PITYRIASIS ROSEA
    • PITYRIASIS ROTUNDA
    • GRANULAR PARAKERATOSIS
    • REFERENCES

    10: Erythroderma

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    11: Lichen Planus and Lichenoid Dermatoses

    • LICHEN PLANUS
    • LICHEN STRIATUS
    • LICHEN NITIDUS
    • ERYTHEMA DYSCHROMICUM PERSTANS
    • KERATOSIS LICHENOIDES CHRONICA
    • ACTINIC LICHEN NITIDUS (SUMMERTIME ACTINIC LICHENOID ERUPTION)
    • ANNULAR LICHENOID DERMATITIS (OF YOUTH)
    • REFERENCES

    12: Atopic Dermatitis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY AND DEFINITIONS
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    13: Other Eczematous Eruptions

    • SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS
    • ASTEATOTIC ECZEMA
    • STASIS DERMATITIS
    • DISSEMINATED ECZEMA (AUTOSENSITIZATION)
    • NUMMULAR DERMATITIS
    • PITYRIASIS ALBA
    • INFECTIVE DERMATITIS
    • DYSHIDROTIC ECZEMA
    • JUVENILE PLANTAR DERMATOSIS
    • DIAPER DERMATITIS
    • REFERENCES

    14: Allergic Contact Dermatitis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY OF PATCH TESTING
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT AND PATIENT EDUCATION
    • ALLERGENS
    • TEXTILE DERMATITIS
    • SYSTEMIC CONTACT DERMATITIS
    • AIRBORNE CONTACT DERMATITIS
    • REFERENCES

    15: Irritant Contact Dermatitis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • PROGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    16: Occupational Dermatoses

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • THE OCCUPATIONAL DERMATOSES
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    • REFERENCES

    17: Dermatoses Due to Plants

    • INTRODUCTION
    • IMMUNOLOGIC CONTACT URTICARIA
    • TOXIN-MEDIATED (NON-IMMUNOLOGIC) CONTACT URTICARIA
    • MECHANICAL IRRITANT DERMATITIS
    • CHEMICAL IRRITANT DERMATITIS
    • PHYTOPHOTODERMATITIS
    • ALLERGIC CONTACT DERMATITIS (see also Ch. 14)
    • OCCUPATIONAL PLANT DERMATOSES
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 4 URTICARIAS, ERYTHEMAS AND PURPURAS

    18: Urticaria and Angioedema

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • PROGNOSIS
    • REFERENCES

    19: Figurate Erythemas

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ERYTHEMA ANNULARE CENTRIFUGUM
    • ERYTHEMA MARGINATUM
    • ERYTHEMA MIGRANS
    • ERYTHEMA GYRATUM REPENS
    • REFERENCES

    20: Erythema Multiforme, Stevens–Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    • ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME
    • STEVENS–JOHNSON SYNDROME AND TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS
    • REFERENCES

    21: Drug Reactions

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • DIAGNOSTIC FEATURES
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    22: Purpura: Mechanisms and Differential Diagnosis

    • PURPURA
    • COAGULATION
    • SELECTED PURPURA SYNDROMES
    • REFERENCES

    23: Cutaneous Manifestations of Microvascular Occlusion Syndromes

    • INTRODUCTION
    • DISORDERS OF PLATELET PLUGGING
    • DISORDERS OF CRYOGELLING OR CRYOAGGLUTINATION
    • DISORDERS OF OCCLUSION BY OPPORTUNISTIC ORGANISMS PROLIFERATING WITHIN VESSELS
    • DISORDERS OF OCCLUSION BY EMBOLI
    • SYSTEMIC COAGULOPATHIES WITH CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS
    • DISORDERS OF VASCULAR COAGULOPATHIES WITH CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS
    • DISORDERS OF CELLULAR VASCULAR OCCLUSION
    • DISORDERS OF OCCLUSION, MISCELLANEOUS
    • REFERENCES

    24: Cutaneous Vasculitis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • CLASSIFICATION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • GENERAL CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • CLINICAL SMALL VESSEL VASCULITIS
    • PREDOMINANTLY SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED VESSEL VASCULITIDES
    • PREDOMINANTLY MEDIUM-SIZED VESSEL VASCULITIS
    • TEMPORAL ARTERITIS
    • DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH VASCULITIS
    • REFERENCES
    • TABLE 24.10 FURTHER REFERENCES

    25: Eosinophilic Dermatoses

    • EOSINOPHIL BIOLOGY
    • EOSINOPHILIC DERMATOSES
    • GRANULOMA FACIALE
    • PAPULOERYTHRODERMA OF OFUJI
    • WELLS’ SYNDROME
    • HYPEREOSINOPHILIC SYNDROME
    • REFERENCES

    26: Neutrophilic Dermatoses

    • NEUTROPHIL BIOLOGY
    • SWEET’S SYNDROME
    • PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM
    • BEHÇET’S DISEASE
    • BOWEL-ASSOCIATED DERMATOSIS–ARTHRITIS SYNDROME
    • SYNOVITIS, ACNE, PUSTULOSIS, HYPEROSTOSIS AND OSTEITIS (SAPHO) SYNDROME
    • REFERENCES
    • 26: Neutrophilic Dermatoses

    27: Pregnancy Dermatoses

    • PEMPHIGOID GESTATIONIS
    • POLYMORPHIC ERUPTION OF PREGNANCY
    • INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS OF PREGNANCY
    • ATOPIC ERUPTION OF PREGNANCY
    • APPROACH TO THE PREGNANT WOMAN WITH PRURITUS
    • PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY
    • AUTOIMMUNE PROGESTERONE DERMATITIS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 5 VESICULOBULLOUS DISEASES

    28: The Biology of the Basement Membrane Zone

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ORIGIN OF THE EPIDERMAL BASEMENT MEMBRANE
    • HEMIDESMOSOME-ANCHORING FILAMENT COMPLEXES AND INTEGRINS IN THE PLASMA MEMBRANES OF BASAL KERATINOCYTES
    • THE LAMINA DENSA
    • ANCHORING FIBRILS AND THE SUBLAMINA DENSA REGION
    • THE EPIDERMAL BASEMENT MEMBRANE IN BULLOUS DISEASES
    • SUMMARY
    • REFERENCES

    29: Pemphigus

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    30: Pemphigoid Group

    • BULLOUS PEMPHIGOID
    • MUCOUS MEMBRANE (CICATRICIAL) PEMPHIGOID
    • EPIDERMOLYSIS BULLOSA ACQUISITA
    • REFERENCES
    • 30: Pemphigoid Group

    31: Dermatitis Herpetiformis and Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis

    • DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS
    • LINEAR IgA BULLOUS DERMATOSIS
    • REFERENCES

    32: Epidermolysis Bullosa

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    33: Other Vesiculobullous Diseases

    • BULLOSIS DIABETICORUM
    • COMA BLISTERS
    • FRICTION BLISTERS
    • BULLOUS SMALL VESSEL VASCULITIS
    • BULLOUS DRUG ERUPTIONS
    • BULLOUS INSECT BITE REACTIONS
    • DELAYED POSTBURN/POSTGRAFT BLISTERS
    • EDEMA BLISTERS
    • PUVA-INDUCED ACROBULLOUS DERMATOSIS
    • REFERENCES

    34: Vesiculobullous and Erosive Diseases in the Newborn

    • COMMON CAUSES
    • UNCOMMON AND RARE CAUSES
    • VERY RARE DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 6 ADNEXAL DISEASES

    35: Structure and Function of Eccrine, Apocrine and Sebaceous Glands

    • ECCRINE, APOCRINE AND APOECCRINE SWEAT GLANDS
    • SEBACEOUS GLANDS
    • REFERENCES

    36: Acne Vulgaris

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    37: Rosacea and Related Disorders

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • ROSACEA-LIKE DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

    38: Folliculitis and Other Follicular Disorders

    • INTRODUCTION
    • SUPERFICIAL FOLLICULITIS
    • DISORDERS OF FOLLICULAR KERATINIZATION
    • DEEP FOLLICULITIS
    • TRICHOSTASIS SPINULOSA
    • FOLLICULODYSTROPHY OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    • REFERENCES

    39: Diseases of the Eccrine and Apocrine Sweat Glands

    • HYPERHIDROSIS
    • HYPOHIDROSIS AND ANHIDROSIS
    • SPECIFIC DISEASES OF THE SWEAT GLAND
    • SWEAT AS A PREDISPOSING INFLUENCE ON SKIN DISEASE
    • APOCRINE SWEAT GLAND DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 7 RHEUMATOLOGIC DERMATOLOGY

    40: Autoantibodies Encountered in Patients with Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • THE CLASSIC ANA ASSAY
    • CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ANA
    • AUTOANTIBODIES ENCOUNTERED IN LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
    • AUTOANTIBODIES ENCOUNTERED IN IDIOPATHIC INFLAMMATORY DERMATOMYOPATHIES
    • AUTOANTIBODIES ENCOUNTERED IN SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS (SCLERODERMA) AND MORPHEA (LOCALIZED SCLERODERMA)
    • AUTOANTIBODIES ENCOUNTERED IN OTHER RHEUMATIC DISORDERS THAT CAN AFFECT THE SKIN
    • REFERENCES

    41: Lupus Erythematosus

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    42: Dermatomyositis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND EVALUATION
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    43: Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma) and Related Disorders

    • SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS
    • EOSINOPHILIC FASCIITIS
    • NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS
    • STIFF SKIN SYNDROME
    • SCLERODERMOID SYNDROMES INDUCED BY EXOGENOUS SUBSTANCES
    • REFERENCES

    44: Morphea and Lichen Sclerosus

    • MORPHEA
    • LICHEN SCLEROSUS
    • REFERENCES

    45: Other Rheumatologic Diseases

    • SYSTEMIC-ONSET JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS (STILL’S DISEASE)
    • ADULT-ONSET STILL’S DISEASE
    • RELAPSING POLYCHONDRITIS
    • SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME
    • MIXED CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE
    • EXTRA-ARTICULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    • INTERSTITIAL GRANULOMATOUS DERMATITIS AND PALISADED NEUTROPHILIC AND GRANULOMATOUS DERMATITIS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 8 METABOLIC AND SYSTEMIC DISEASES

    46: Mucinoses

    • INTRODUCTION
    • CLASSIFICATION
    • PRIMARY DEGENERATIVE– INFLAMMATORY MUCINOSES
    • PRIMARY HAMARTOMATOUS– NEOPLASTIC MUCINOSES
    • REFERENCES

    47: Amyloidosis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PRIMARY (LOCALIZED) CUTANEOUS AMYLOIDOSIS
    • SECONDARY CUTANEOUS AMYLOIDOSIS
    • SYSTEMIC AMYLOIDOSIS
    • APPENDIX
    • REFERENCES

    48: Deposition Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • GOUT
    • PSEUDOGOUT
    • LIPOID PROTEINOSIS
    • COLLOID MILIUM
    • MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSES
    • REFERENCES

    49: Porphyria

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATION
    • THE NON-ACUTE PORPHYRIAS
    • THE ACUTE PORPHYRIAS
    • REFERENCES

    50: Calcifying and Ossifying Disorders of the Skin

    • INTRODUCTION
    • CUTANEOUS CALCIFICATION
    • DYSTROPHIC CALCIFICATION
    • METASTATIC CALCIFICATION
    • IDIOPATHIC CALCIFICATION
    • IATROGENIC CALCIFICATION
    • CUTANEOUS OSSIFICATION (OSTEOMA CUTIS)
    • “SECONDARY” CUTANEOUS OSSIFICATION
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION OF PATIENTS WITH CUTANEOUS CALCIFICATION AND OSSIFICATION
    • REFERENCES

    51: Nutritional Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    52: Graft-versus-Host Disease

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    53: Dermatologic Manifestations in Patients with Systemic Disease

    • CUTANEOUS RHEUMATOLOGY
    • CUTANEOUS HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY
    • CUTANEOUS ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLIC DISEASE
    • CUTANEOUS GASTROENTEROLOGY
    • OTHER SYSTEMIC DISEASES WITH CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 9 GENODERMATOSES

    54: Basic Principles of Genetics

    • INTRODUCTION
    • GENETIC DISEASES
    • MENDELIAN DISEASES: PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE
    • EXCEPTIONS TO BASIC MENDELIAN PATTERNS OF HERITANCE
    • CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS
    • IDENTIFICATION OF DISEASE GENES
    • COMPLEX TRAITS
    • REFERENCES

    55: Genetic Basis of Cutaneous Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • McKUSICK’ S MENDELIAN INHERITANCE IN MAN
    • GENOTYPE–PHENOTYPE CORRELATIONS
    • MOLECULAR CLASSIFICATION OF HEREDITARY SKIN DISORDERS
    • CONTIGUOUS GENE SYNDROMES
    • CUTANEOUS MOSAICISM
    • TWIN SPOTTING
    • REVERTANT MOSAICISM
    • CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS
    • INSIGHT INTO ACQUIRED SKIN DISORDERS PROVIDED BY THE STUDY OF GENODERMATOSES
    • PRENATAL AND PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT FOR HEREDITARY SKIN DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

    56: Biology of Keratinocytes

    • INTRODUCTION
    • THE EPIDERMIS: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    • KERATIN INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS
    • EPIDERMAL DIFFERENTIATION
    • KERATINOCYTE ADHESION
    • KERATINOCYTE–MATRIX INTERACTIONS
    • RELATED DISEASES
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    57: Ichthyoses, Erythrokeratodermas and Related Disorders

    • ICHTHYOSES
    • ERYTHROKERATODERMAS
    • X-LINKED DOMINANT ICHTHYOSIFORM DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

    58: Keratodermas

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HEREDITARY KERATODERMAS
    • ACQUIRED KERATODERMAS AND RELATED CONDITIONS
    • REFERENCES

    59: Darier Disease and Hailey–Hailey Disease

    • DARIER DISEASE
    • HAILEY–HAILEY DISEASE
    • REFERENCES

    60: Primary Immunodeficiencies

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ATAXIA–TELANGIECTASIA
    • CHRONIC MUCOCUTANEOUS CANDIDIASIS
    • CARTILAGE–HAIR HYPOPLASIA SYNDROME
    • CHÉDIAK–HIGASHI SYNDROME
    • COMPLEMENT DISORDERS
    • CHRONIC GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE
    • HYPERIMMUNOGLOBULIN E SYNDROMES
    • IMMUNOGLOBULIN DEFICIENCIES
    • IPEX SYNDROME
    • LEUKOCYTE ADHESION DEFICIENCY
    • SEVERE COMBINED IMMUNODEFICIENCY
    • WISKOTT–ALDRICH SYNDROME
    • REFERENCES

    61: Neurofibromatosis and Tuberous Sclerosis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • NEUROFIBROMATOSIS TYPE 1
    • TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS
    • REFERENCES

    62: Mosaicism and Linear Lesions

    • INTRODUCTION
    • MOSAICISM IN X-LINKED CONDITIONS
    • MOSAICISM FOR AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT CONDITIONS
    • LINEAR INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS
    • LETHAL DISORDERS RESCUED BY MOSAICISM
    • CHROMOSOMAL MOSAICISM
    • CHIMERISM
    • REFERENCES

    63: Other Genodermatoses

    • Introduction
    • DISORDERS FEATURING TUMORIGENESIS
    • ENZYME DEFICIENCY DISEASES
    • PREMATURE AGING SYNDROMES AND POIKILODERMAS
    • ECTODERMAL DYSPLASIAS
    • REFERENCES

    64: Developmental Anomalies

    • INTRODUCTION
    • THE MIDLINE LESION
    • APLASIA CUTIS CONGENITA
    • OTHER DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALIES
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 10 PIGMENTARY DISORDERS

    65: Melanocyte Biology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ORIGIN AND FUNCTION OF THE MELANOCYTE
    • FORMATION AND FUNCTION OF THE MELANOSOME
    • REGULATION OF MELANIN BIOSYNTHESIS
    • REFERENCES

    66: Vitiligo and Other Disorders of Hypopigmentation

    • INTRODUCTION
    • DIAGNOSIS OF LEUKODERMAS 1
    • VITILIGO
    • HEREDITARY HYPOMELANOSIS 57
    • OTHER GENETIC FORMS OF HYPOMELANOSIS
    • NUTRITIONAL HYPOMELANOSIS
    • POSTINFLAMMATORY HYPOMELANOSIS
    • INFECTIOUS AND PARASITIC HYPOMELANOSIS
    • HALO NEVUS AND MELANOMA-ASSOCIATED LEUKODERMA
    • CHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGIC HYPOMELANOSIS
    • HYPOMELANOSIS FROM PHYSICAL AGENTS
    • MISCELLANEOUS
    • REFERENCES

    67: Disorders of Hyperpigmentation

    • DIFFUSE AND CIRCUMSCRIBED HYPERPIGMENTATION
    • LINEAR HYPERPIGMENTATION
    • RETICULATED HYPERPIGMENTATION
    • DYSCHROMATOSES
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 11 HAIR, NAILS AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES

    68: Biology of Hair and Nails

    • PRINCIPLES OF APPENDAGE MORPHOGENESIS
    • BIOLOGY OF HAIR
    • BIOLOGY OF NAILS
    • REFERENCES

    69: Alopecias

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA
    • TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM
    • TRICHOTILLOMANIA
    • ALOPECIA AREATA
    • OTHER NON-CICATRICIAL (NON-SCARRING) ALOPECIAS
    • CICATRICIAL (SCARRING) ALOPECIAS
    • HAIR SHAFT ABNORMALITIES
    • REFERENCES

    70: Hypertrichosis and Hirsutism

    • HYPERTRICHOSIS
    • HIRSUTISM
    • REFERENCES

    71: Nail Disorders

    • ANATOMY (Fig. 71.1)
    • NAIL SIGNS
    • CONGENITAL AND HEREDITARY NAIL DISEASES
    • THE NAIL IN DERMATOLOGIC DISEASES
    • THE NAIL IN SYSTEMIC DISEASES
    • INFECTIONS
    • ENVIRONMENTAL NAIL DISORDERS
    • TRAUMATIC NAIL ABNORMALITIES (Table 71.10)
    • NAIL TUMORS
    • REFERENCES

    72: Oral Disease

    • Introduction
    • DEVELOPMENTAL CONDITIONS OF THE ORAL CAVITY
    • SYNDROMES OF THE HEAD AND NECK
    • PERIODONTAL AND DENTAL DISEASE
    • PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL INJURIES
    • ALLERGIC AND IMMUNOLOGIC DISEASES
    • EPITHELIAL PATHOLOGY
    • SALIVARY GLAND DISEASES
    • ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HEMATOLOGIC/ ONCOLOGIC DISEASE
    • ORAL MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE
    • ORAL MANIFESTIONS OF HIV INFECTION
    • REFERENCES

    73: Anogenital (Non-venereal) Disease

    • INTRODUCTION
    • LICHEN SCLEROSUS
    • LICHEN PLANUS
    • ZOON’S BALANITIS/VULVITIS
    • EPITHELIAL DISORDERS OF THE ANOGENITAL REGION
    • PREMALIGNANT AND MALIGNANT LESIONS
    • DYSESTHETIC GENITAL PAIN SYNDROMES
    • BENIGN LESIONS
    • THE ANOGENITAL REGION AND SYSTEMIC DISEASE
    • INFECTIONS
    • EROSIVE GENITAL DISEASE
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 12 INFECTIONS, INFESTATIONS AND BITES

    74: Bacterial Diseases

    • NORMAL SKIN FLORA
    • GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA
    • GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA
    • SPIROCHETES
    • BACTERIA PREVIOUSLY CLASSIFIED AS FUNGI
    • REFERENCES

    75: Mycobacterial Infections

    • LEPROSY
    • CUTANEOUS TUBERCULOSIS
    • NON-TUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIOSES
    • REFERENCES

    76: Rickettsial Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • SPOTTED FEVER AND TYPHUS GROUP RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS
    • SCRUB TYPHUS
    • HUMAN EHRLICHIOSES
    • HUMAN GRANULOCYTOTROPIC ANAPLASMOSIS
    • Q FEVER
    • REFERENCES

    77: Fungal Diseases

    • SUPERFICIAL MYCOSES
    • SUBCUTANEOUS MYCOSES
    • SYSTEMIC MYCOSES
    • REFERENCES

    78: Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Infection

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • INFECTIOUS HIV-RELATED CUTANEOUS DISORDERS
    • NON-INFECTIOUS HIV-RELATED CUTANEOUS DISORDERS
    • NEOPLASTIC HIV-RELATED CUTANEOUS DISORDERS
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

    79: Human Papillomaviruses

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • THERAPY
    • DISCLAIMER
    • REFERENCES

    80: Human Herpesviruses

    • HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUSES (HSV-1 AND HSV-2)
    • VARICELLA–ZOSTER VIRUS (HHV-3)
    • EPSTEIN–BARR VIRUS (HHV-4)
    • CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (HHV-5)
    • HUMAN HERPESVIRUS TYPE 6 (HHV-6)
    • HUMAN HERPESVIRUS TYPE 7 (HHV-7)
    • HUMAN HERPESVIRUS TYPE 8 (HHV-8)
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    81: Other Viral Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ENTEROVIRUS INFECTIONS
    • MEASLES
    • RUBELLA
    • ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM
    • ROSEOLA INFANTUM
    • UNILATERAL LATEROTHORACIC EXANTHEM
    • GIANOTTI–CROSTI SYNDROME
    • POXVIRUS INFECTIONS
    • VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS, INCLUDING DENGUE
    • WEST NILE VIRUS INFECTION
    • CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER
    • BARMAH FOREST AND ROSS RIVER VIRUS INFECTIONS
    • RABIES
    • CUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF HEPATITIS A, B AND C INFECTION
    • VIRAL-ASSOCIATED TRICHODYSPLASIA OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION
    • KAWASAKI DISEASE
    • REFERENCES

    82: Sexually Transmitted Infections

    • INTRODUCTION
    • SYPHILIS
    • GONORRHEA
    • CHANCROID
    • LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM
    • DONOVANOSIS (GRANULOMA INGUINALE)
    • REFERENCES

    83: Protozoa and Worms

    • PROTOZOA
    • WORMS (HELMINTHS)
    • REFERENCES

    84: Infestations

    • SCABIES
    • HEAD LICE
    • CRAB LICE
    • BODY LICE
    • TUNGIASIS
    • CUTANEOUS MYIASIS
    • REFERENCES

    85: Bites and Stings

    • INSECTS
    • ARACHNIDS
    • CENTIPEDES (CLASS CHILOPODA) AND MILLIPEDES (CLASS DIPLOPODA)
    • SNAKE BITES
    • DOG AND CAT BITES
    • LEECHES
    • MARINE INJURIES
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 13 DISORDERS DUE TO PHYSICAL AGENTS

    86: Ultraviolet Light

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PHOTOCARCINOGENESIS
    • RELATED DISEASES
    • REFERENCES

    87: Photodermatologic Disorders

    • ABNORMAL CUTANEOUS EFFECTS OF UVR EXPOSURE
    • NORMAL CUTANEOUS EFFECTS OF UVR EXPOSURE
    • REFERENCES

    88: Environmental and Sports-Related Skin Diseases

    • INJURY DUE TO HEAT EXPOSURE
    • INJURY DUE TO COLD EXPOSURE
    • INJURY DUE TO WATER EXPOSURE
    • INJURY DUE TO ELECTRICITY
    • INJURY DUE TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURE
    • FRICTIONAL AND TRAUMATIC INJURY TO THE SKIN
    • SPORTS-RELATED DERMATOSES
    • AMPUTEE-RELATED DERMATOSES
    • MUSICAL INSTRUMENT-RELATED DERMATOSES
    • REFERENCES
    • 88: Environmental and Sports-Related Skin Diseases

    89: Signs of Drug Abuse

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ADDICTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    90: Skin Signs of Abuse

    • CHILD ABUSE
    • ELDER ABUSE
    • REFERENCES
    • 90: Skin Signs of Abuse

SECTION 14 DISORDERS OF LANGERHANS CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

    91: Histiocytoses

    • OVERVIEW
    • LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS
    • NON-LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSES
    • MALIGNANT HISTIOCYTIC DISORDERS
    • DERMAL DENDROCYTE HAMARTOMAS
    • REFERENCES

    92: Xanthomas

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    93: Non-infectious Granulomas

    • INTRODUCTION
    • SARCOIDOSIS
    • GRANULOMA ANNULARE
    • NECROBIOSIS LIPOIDICA
    • ANNULAR ELASTOLYTIC GIANT CELL GRANULOMA
    • CUTANEOUS CROHN’S DISEASE
    • FOREIGN BODY GRANULOMAS (see Ch 94)
    • REFERENCES

    94: Foreign Body Reactions

    • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • FOREIGN BODY REACTIONS TO INORGANIC AND METALLIC COMPOUNDS
    • REACTIONS TO ORGANIC AND BIOLOGIC PRODUCTS
    • INJECTABLE SOFT TISSUE FILLERS
    • MISCELLANEOUS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 15 ATROPHIES AND DISORDERS OF DERMAL CONNECTIVE TISSUES

    95: Biology of the Extracellular Matrix

    • INTRODUCTION
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX
    • DISEASES RELATED TO ECM DEFECTS
    • REFERENCES

    96: Perforating Diseases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    97: Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue

    • Introduction
    • EHLERS–DANLOS SYNDROME
    • PSEUDOXANTHOMA ELASTICUM
    • CUTIS LAXA
    • REFERENCES

    98: Dermal Hypertrophies

    • HYPERTROPHIC SCARS AND KELOIDS
    • DUPUYTREN’S CONTRACTURE
    • CUTIS VERTICIS GYRATA
    • JUVENILE HYALINE FIBROMATOSIS AND INFANTILE SYSTEMIC HYALINOSIS
    • ELASTIC TISSUE-RELATED DISORDERS
    • REFERENCES

    99: Atrophies of Connective Tissue

    • MID-DERMAL ELASTOLYSIS
    • ANETODERMA
    • STRIAE
    • IDIOPATHIC ATROPHODERMA OF PASINI AND PIERINI
    • FOLLICULAR ATROPHODERMA
    • ATROPHIA MACULOSA VARIOLIFORMIS CUTIS
    • PIEZOGENIC PEDAL PAPULES (PIEZOGENIC PAPULES)
    • OTHER ATROPHIES OF THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 16 DISORDERS OF SUBCUTANEOUS FAT

    100: Panniculitis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ERYTHEMA NODOSUM
    • MORPHEA/SCLERODERMA PANNICULITIS
    • ALPHA1-ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY PANNICULITIS
    • ERYTHEMA INDURATUM
    • PANCREATIC PANNICULITIS
    • SCLEREMA NEONATORUM, SUBCUTANEOUS FAT NECROSIS OF THE NEWBORN, AND POST- STEROID PANNICULITIS
    • LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS PANNICULITIS (LUPUS PANNICULITIS)
    • PANNICULITIS OF DERMATOMYOSITIS
    • TRAUMATIC PANNICULITIS
    • LIPODERMATOSCLEROSIS
    • INFECTION-INDUCED PANNICULITIS
    • CYTOPHAGIC HISTIOCYTIC PANNICULITIS
    • MALIGNANT SUBCUTANEOUS INFILTRATES
    • UNUSUAL OR NEWLY DESCRIBED FORMS OF PANNICULITIS
    • REFERENCES

    101: Lipodystrophies

    • Introduction
    • Pathogenesis
    • Clinical Features
    • Pathology
    • Differential Diagnosis
    • Treatment
    • HIV/ART-ASSOCIATED LIPODYSTROPHY
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 17 VASCULAR DISORDERS

    102: Vascular Biology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CUTANEOUS BLOOD VESSELS
    • VASCULAR DEVELOPMENT
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CUTANEOUS LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    • RELATED DISEASES
    • CURRENT TRENDS IN ANTIANGIOGENESIS
    • REFERENCES

    103: Infantile Hemangiomas

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • RADIOLOGIC FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    104: Vascular Malformations

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    105: Ulcers

    • INTRODUCTION
    • VENOUS ULCERS
    • LYMPHEDEMA
    • ARTERIAL ULCERS
    • DIABETIC (AND NEUROPATHIC) ULCERS
    • ULCERS DUE TO PHYSICAL FACTORS
    • OTHER CAUSES OF SKIN ULCERATION
    • REFERENCES

    106: Other Vascular Disorders

    • INTRODUCTION
    • LIVEDO RETICULARIS
    • FLUSHING
    • ERYTHROMELALGIA
    • TELANGIECTASIAS
    • VENOUS LAKES
    • NEVUS ANEMICUS
    • ANGIOSPASTIC MACULES (BIER SPOTS)
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 18 NEOPLASMS OF THE SKIN

    107: Principles of Tumor Biology and Pathogenesis of BCCs and SCCs

    • INTRODUCTION
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF p53
    • STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF PATCHED
    • PATHOGENESIS OF BCC
    • PATHOGENESIS OF SCC
    • RELATED DISEASES
    • REFERENCES

    108: Actinic Keratosis, Basal Cell Carcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • RISK FACTORS ( Table 108.3 )
    • ACTINIC KERATOSIS AND SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
    • BASAL CELL CARCINOMA
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    109: Benign Epidermal Tumors and Proliferations

    • SEBORRHEIC KERATOSIS
    • LICHENOID KERATOSIS
    • DERMATOSIS PAPULOSA NIGRA
    • STUCCO KERATOSIS
    • POROKERATOSIS
    • FLEGEL DISEASE
    • ACROKERATOSIS VERRUCIFORMIS
    • CUTANEOUS HORN
    • CLEAR CELL ACANTHOMA
    • INVERTED FOLLICULAR KERATOSIS
    • WARTY DYSKERATOMA
    • ACANTHOLYTIC (DYSKERATOTIC) ACANTHOMA
    • EPIDERMOLYTIC ACANTHOMA
    • LARGE CELL ACANTHOMA
    • EPIDERMAL NEVUS
    • INFLAMMATORY LINEAR VERRUCOUS EPIDERMAL NEVUS
    • NEVUS COMEDONICUS
    • ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS
    • CONFLUENT AND RETICULATED PAPILLOMATOSIS
    • CLEAR CELL PAPULOSIS
    • REFERENCES

    110: Cysts

    • INTRODUCTION
    • CYSTS WITH A LINING OF STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
    • CYSTS LINED WITH NON-STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
    • CYSTS WITHOUT AN EPITHELIAL LINING
    • REFERENCES

    111: Adnexal Neoplasms

    • NEOPLASMS AND PROLIFERATIONS OF FOLLICULAR LINEAGE
    • NEOPLASMS AND PROLIFERATIONS WITH SEBACEOUS DIFFERENTIATION
    • NEOPLASMS AND PROLIFERATIONS WITH APOCRINE DIFFERENTIATION
    • NEOPLASMS AND PROLIFERATIONS WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION
    • REFERENCES

    112: Benign Melanocytic Neoplasms

    • EPHELIDES
    • CAFÉ-AU-LAIT MACULES
    • BECKER’S MELANOSIS
    • SOLAR LENTIGINES
    • LENTIGO SIMPLEX AND MUCOSAL MELANOTIC LESIONS
    • DERMAL MELANOCYTOSIS
    • NEVUS OF OTA AND RELATED CONDITIONS
    • BLUE NEVUS AND ITS VARIANTS
    • COMMON ACQUIRED MELANOCYTIC NEVI
    • MELANOCYTIC NEVI OF GENITAL AND FLEXURAL SKIN
    • MELANOCYTIC NEVUS OF ACRAL SKIN
    • SPITZ (SPINDLE AND EPITHELIOID CELL) NEVUS/TUMOR
    • ATYPICAL (DYSPLASTIC) MELANOCYTIC NEVUS
    • CONGENITAL MELANOCYTIC NEVUS
    • NEVUS SPILUS
    • HALO NEVUS
    • COMBINED NEVUS
    • RECURRENT MELANOCYTIC NEVUS
    • REFERENCES
    • 112: Benign Melanocytic Neoplasms

    113: Melanoma

    • INTRODUCTION
    • MOLECULAR PATHOGENESIS
    • HOST IMMUNE RESPONSE TO MELANOMA
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • RISK FACTORS FOR CUTANEOUS MELANOMA
    • TYPES OF PRIMARY MELANOMAS
    • OTHER MELANOMA VARIANTS
    • MELANOMA AND PREGNANCY
    • CHILDHOOD MELANOMA
    • DIAGNOSIS
    • HISTOPATHOLOGY
    • STAGING
    • PROGNOSIS
    • EVALUATION OF A PATIENT WITH SUSPECTED MELANOMA
    • MANAGEMENT
    • MELANOMA SURVEILLANCE
    • REFERENCES

    114: Vascular Neoplasms and Neoplastic-like Proliferations

    • INTRODUCTION
    • BENIGN VASCULAR NEOPLASMS AND REACTIVE HYPERPLASIAS
    • BORDERLINE AND LOW-GRADE MALIGNANT VASCULAR NEOPLASMS
    • MALIGNANT VASCULAR NEOPLASMS
    • PERIVASCULAR NEOPLASMS AND NEOPLASTIC-LIKE PROLIFERATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    115: Neural and Neuroendocrine Neoplasms (Other than Neurofibromatosis)

    • CLASSIFICATION, TERMINOLOGY AND HISTOGENESIS
    • NEUROMAS
    • SCHWANNOMA
    • NEUROFIBROMA
    • NERVE SHEATH MYXOMA AND CELLULAR NEUROTHEKEOMA
    • GRANULAR CELL TUMOR
    • PERINEURIOMA
    • MALIGNANT PERIPHERAL NERVE SHEATH TUMOR
    • MERKEL CELL CARCINOMA
    • TUMORS AND TUMOR-LIKE CONDITIONS OF ECTOPIC AND HETEROTOPIC NEURAL TISSUE OF THE SKIN
    • REFERENCES

    116: Fibrous and Fibrohistiocytic Proliferations of the Skin and Tendons

    • SKIN TAGS
    • CUTANEOUS ANGIOFIBROMA
    • DERMATOFIBROMA
    • ACRAL FIBROKERATOMA
    • SUPERFICIAL ACRAL FIBROMYXOMA
    • SCLEROTIC FIBROMA OF THE SKIN
    • PLEOMORPHIC FIBROMA OF THE SKIN
    • EPITHELIOID FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA
    • MULTINUCLEATE CELL ANGIOHISTIOCYTOMA
    • DERMATOMYOFIBROMA
    • GIANT CELL TUMOR OF TENDON SHEATH
    • FIBROMA OF TENDON SHEATH
    • NODULAR FASCIITIS
    • CONNECTIVE TISSUE NEVUS
    • INFANTILE DIGITAL FIBROMA
    • INFANTILE MYOFIBROMATOSIS
    • CALCIFYING APONEUROTIC FIBROMA
    • FIBROUS HAMARTOMA OF INFANCY
    • FIBROMATOSES
    • PLEXIFORM FIBROHISTIOCYTIC TUMOR
    • ATYPICAL FIBROXANTHOMA
    • DERMATOFIBROSARCOMA PROTUBERANS
    • GIANT CELL FIBROBLASTOMA
    • FIBROSARCOMA
    • EPITHELIOID SARCOMA
    • REFERENCES
    • 116: Fibrous and Fibrohistiocytic Proliferations of the Skin and Tendons

    117: Muscle, Adipose and Cartilage Neoplasms

    • TUMORS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE
    • TUMORS OF FAT
    • TUMORS OF CARTILAGE
    • REFERENCES

    118: Mastocytosis

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • REFERENCES

    119: B-Cell Lymphomas of the Skin

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • TREATMENT
    • PLASMA CELL DYSCRASIAS, INCLUDING MULTIPLE MYELOMA
    • REFERENCES

    120: Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    • Introduction
    • History
    • Practical Guidelines for Diagnosis, Classification and Staging of CTCL
    • MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES
    • VARIANTS OF MYCOSIS FUNGOIDES
    • SÉZARY SYNDROME
    • ADULT T-CELL LEUKEMIA/LYMPHOMA
    • PRIMARY CUTANEOUS CD30-POSITIVE LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS
    • SUBCUTANEOUS PANNICULITIS-LIKE T-CELL LYMPHOMA
    • EXTRANODAL NK/T-CELL LYMPHOMA, NASAL TYPE
    • PRIMARY CUTANEOUS CD8-POSITIVE AGGRESSIVE EPIDERMOTROPIC CYTOTOXIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA
    • PRIMARY CUTANEOUS GAMMA/DELTA T-CELL LYMPHOMA
    • PRIMARY CUTANEOUS CD4-POSITIVE SMALL/ MEDIUM PLEOMORPHIC T-CELL LYMPHOMA
    • PRIMARY CUTANEOUS PERIPHERAL T-CELL LYMPHOMA, UNSPECIFIED
    • REFERENCES

    121: Other Lymphoproliferative and Myeloproliferative Diseases

    • BENIGN LYMPHOCYTIC INFILTRATES
    • MALIGNANT HEMATOPOIETIC INFILTRATES
    • REFERENCES

    122: Cutaneous Metastases

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • PATHOLOGY
    • TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 19 MEDICAL THERAPY

    123: Public Health and Dermatology

    • INTRODUCTION
    • THE PUBLIC HEALTH IMPORTANCE OF DERMATOLOGY
    • ROLE OF EPIDEMIOLOGY IN DERMATOLOGY
    • OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES
    • ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF A PREVENTIVE OR THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION
    • GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH
    • IMPORTANT CONCEPTS WHEN DESIGNING AND REVIEWING A STUDY
    • OPPORTUNITIES FOR RESEARCH IN DERMATO-EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • REFERENCES

    124: Skin Barrier and Transdermal Drug Delivery

    • STRUCTURE AND ORIGIN OF THE SKIN BARRIER
    • PARAMETERS AFFECTING SKIN PERMEABILITY
    • STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY
    • REFERENCES

    125: Glucocorticosteroids

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PHARMACOLOGY AND MECHANISM OF ACTION
    • CLINICAL INDICATIONS, DOSAGES AND CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • MAJOR SIDE EFFECTS
    • INTERACTIONS AND DOSE ALTERATIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 125: Glucocorticosteroids

    126: Retinoids

    • INTRODUCTION
    • MECHANISM OF ACTION
    • INDICATIONS (Table 126.3)
    • DOSAGE
    • CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • MAJOR SIDE EFFECTS
    • INTERACTIONS
    • USE IN PREGNANCY AND LACTATION
    • REFERENCES

    127: Antimicrobial Drugs

    • ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS
    • ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    • ANTIVIRAL AGENTS
    • REFERENCES

    128: Immunomodulators

    • INTERFERONS
    • IMIQUIMOD
    • GRANULOCYTE–MACROPHAGE AND GRANULOCYTE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS (GM-CSF AND G-CSF)
    • TOPICAL CALCINEURIN INHIBITORS
    • TARGETED IMMUNE MODULATORS
    • INTRAVENOUS IMMUNE GLOBULIN (IVIg)
    • REFERENCES

    129: Other Topical Medications

    • INTRODUCTION
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TOPICAL THERAPY
    • ANESTHETICS
    • ANTIPRURITIC AGENTS
    • KERATOLYTIC AGENTS
    • SKIN-LIGHTENING AGENTS
    • AGENTS THAT AFFECT HAIR GROWTH
    • CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS
    • VITAMIN D ANALOGUES
    • MISCELLANEOUS AGENTS
    • REFERENCES

    130: Systemic Drugs

    • INTRODUCTION
    • ANTIMALARIALS
    • AZATHIOPRINE
    • BLEOMYCIN
    • CLOFAZIMINE
    • COLCHICINE
    • CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE
    • CYCLOSPORINE
    • DAPSONE
    • GOLD
    • HYDROXYUREA
    • LEUKOTRIENE INHIBITORS
    • METHOTREXATE
    • MYCOPHENOLATE MOFETIL
    • SATURATED SOLUTION OF POTASSIUM IODIDE (SSKI)
    • TACROLIMUS
    • THALIDOMIDE
    • REFERENCES

    131: Drug Interactions

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PUTTING INTERACTIONS INTO PERSPECTIVE
    • ASSESSMENT OF RISK IN THE CLINICAL OUTCOME OF DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • LEVELS OF EVIDENCE
    • ABSORPTION
    • DISTRIBUTION
    • DRUG BIOTRANSFORMATION
    • THE CONFUSING WORLD OF DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • HOW TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF DRUG–DRUG INTERACTIONS
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    132: Sunscreens

    • INTRODUCTION AND HISTORY
    • SUNSCREEN REGULATION
    • MECHANISMS OF SUNSCREEN ACTION
    • ACTIVE INGREDIENTS IN SUNSCREENS
    • SUNSCREEN EFFICACY
    • SUNSCREEN SAFETY
    • SUNSCREEN RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    133: Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    • INTRODUCTION
    • BOTANICALS, DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS, AND OTHER BIOLOGICALLY BASED PRACTICES
    • TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE
    • HOMEOPATHY
    • AROMATHERAPY
    • MIND–BODY MEDICINE
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 20 PHYSICAL TREATMENT MODALITIES

    134: Ultraviolet Therapy

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PHOTOTHERAPY WITH UVB
    • PHOTOTHERAPY WITH THE 308 NM EXCIMER LASER
    • PHOTOTHERAPY WITH UVA1
    • PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY WITH PSORALENS (PUVA)
    • EXTRACORPOREAL PHOTOCHEMOTHERAPY (PHOTOPHERESIS)
    • REFERENCES

    135: Photodynamic Therapy

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
    • PDT – PHOTOCHEMISTRY, PHOTOBIOLOGY AND MECHANISM OF ACTION
    • COMPONENTS OF PDT
    • INDICATIONS
    • ADVERSE EFFECTS AND COMPLICATIONS
    • PRACTICE AND TECHNIQUES
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    136: Lasers and Other Energy Technologies – Principles & Skin Interactions

    • INTRODUCTION
    • LASERS
    • SKIN OPTICS
    • THERMAL INTERACTIONS
    • SELECTIVE PHOTOTHERMOLYSIS
    • PHOTOMECHANICAL EFFECTS
    • SKIN COOLING
    • APPLICATIONS OF LASER PRINCIPLES
    • PRINCIPLES OF LASER SAFETY
    • NON-LASER ENERGY SOURCES
    • REFERENCES

    137: Laser Therapy

    • TYPES OF LASERS AND INTENSE PULSED LIGHT
    • TREATMENT OF VASCULAR LESIONS
    • TREATMENT OF TATTOOS
    • TREATMENT OF MELANIN-CONTAINING LESIONS
    • TREATMENT OF STRIAE DISTENSAE
    • ABLATIVE LASERS: CARBON DIOXIDE AND Er:YAG
    • FRACTIONATED LASERS
    • PLASMAKINETIC RESURFACING
    • OTHER PHOTOREJUVENATION DEVICES
    • RADIOFREQUENCY (RF)
    • HAIR REMOVAL
    • TREATMENT OF PSORIASIS AND VITILIGO
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

    138: Cryosurgery

    • INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
    • INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND CONSIDERATIONS
    • TREATMENT FACTORS
    • DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUES
    • TREATMENT
    • VARIATIONS AND UNUSUAL SITUATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    139: Radiotherapy

    • BASICS OF RADIOTHERAPY
    • RADIOTHERAPY OF BENIGN SKIN DISORDERS
    • RADIOTHERAPY OF IN SITU CUTANEOUS MALIGNANCIES
    • RADIOTHERAPY OF INVASIVE CARCINOMAS, SARCOMAS AND LYMPHOMAS
    • PALLIATION
    • REACTIONS AND COMPLICATIONS
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    140: Electrosurgery

    • INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
    • INDICATIONS/CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND CONSIDERATIONS
    • DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUES
    • VARIATIONS/UNUSUAL SITUATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • ELECTROEPILATION
    • IONTOPHORESIS
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 21 SURGERY

    141: Biology of Wound Healing

    • INTRODUCTION
    • WOUND REPAIR AND REGENERATION IN DIFFERENT SPECIES
    • IMPACT OF WOUND DEPTH ON WOUND HEALING
    • SKIN REPAIR – CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR ASPECTS
    • ABNORMAL WOUND HEALING
    • THERAPEUTIC OPTIONS FOR CHRONIC WOUNDS
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    142: Surgical Anatomy of the Head and Neck

    • TOPOGRAPHIC ANATOMY OF THE HEAD AND NECK
    • THE SUPERFICIAL MUSCULOAPONEUROTIC SYSTEM
    • SKIN TENSION LINES
    • COSMETIC SUBUNITS
    • FREE MARGINS
    • MUSCLES OF FACIAL EXPRESSION
    • VASCULAR ANATOMY
    • THE FACIAL NERVE
    • SENSORY INNERVATION OF THE HEAD AND NECK
    • LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE OF THE HEAD AND NECK
    • REFERENCES

    143: Anesthesia

    • INTRODUCTION
    • DISCUSSION
    • REFERENCES

    144: Wound Closure Materials and Instruments

    • INTRODUCTION
    • DISCUSSION
    • REFERENCES

    145: Dressings

    • INTRODUCTION
    • THE HISTORY OF DRESSINGS
    • THE FUNCTIONS OF A WOUND DRESSING
    • MOIST HEALING ENVIRONMENT
    • THE ROLE OF OXYGEN
    • TRADITIONAL WOUND DRESSINGS
    • FIRST AND SECOND INTENTION HEALING
    • DRESSINGS THAT CONTAIN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
    • ABSORPTIVE AND PASTE DRESSINGS
    • OCCLUSIVE DRESSINGS
    • WOUND THERAPY – SUPPLEMENTAL TREATMENTS
    • TISSUE-ENGINEERED SKIN EQUIVALENTS
    • SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    146: Biopsy Techniques and Basic Excisions

    • INTRODUCTION
    • KEY CONCEPTS
    • INDICATIONS/CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND CONSIDERATIONS
    • TECHNIQUES
    • VARIATIONS/UNUSUAL SITUATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    147: Flaps

    • INTRODUCTION
    • BACKGROUND
    • DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUE
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • FURTHER READING

    148: Grafts

    • INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
    • WOUND HEALING CONSIDERATIONS
    • FULL-THICKNESS SKIN GRAFTS
    • SPLIT-THICKNESS SKIN GRAFTS
    • COMPOSITE GRAFTS
    • FREE CARTILAGE GRAFTS
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

    149: Nail Surgery

    • INTRODUCTION
    • SURGICAL ANATOMY OF THE NAIL UNIT
    • PATIENT PREPARATION AND PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • INSTRUMENTS FOR NAIL SURGERY
    • NAIL AVULSION AND NAIL MATRIX EXPLORATION
    • NAIL EXCISIONS AND BIOPSIES
    • DRESSINGS AND POSTOPERATIVE CARE FOLLOWING NAIL SURGERY
    • SPECIAL SITUATIONS IN NAIL SURGERY
    • COMPLICATIONS OF NAIL SURGERY
    • REFERENCES

    150: Mohs Surgery

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORY
    • TRAINING IN MOHS SURGERY
    • INDICATIONS
    • CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND CONSIDERATIONS
    • DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUE
    • VARIATIONS/REFINEMENTS/SPECIAL SITUATIONS
    • CHALLENGES AND PITFALLS OF FROZEN SECTIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    151: Surgical Complications and Optimizing Outcomes

    • INTRODUCTION
    • DISCUSSION
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

SECTION 22 COSMETIC SURGERY

    152: Evaluation of Beauty and the Aging Face

    • INTRODUCTION
    • EVALUATION OF BEAUTY
    • ANATOMIC BASIS FOR THE AGING APPEARANCE
    • PHOTOAGING
    • PIGMENTARY SYSTEM
    • VOLUME CHANGES – THE LOSS OF SUBCUTANEOUS FAT
    • CHANGES IN FACIAL MUSCULATURE
    • CHANGES IN UNDERLYING CARTILAGE AND BONE
    • INHERENT LOSS OF ELASTICITY
    • GENDER DIFFERENCES
    • ETHNIC DIFFERENCES
    • COMBINATION THERAPIES
    • REFERENCES

    153: Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals

    • INTRODUCTION
    • DISCUSSION
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • REFERENCES

    154: Chemical and Mechanical Skin Resurfacing

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND CONSIDERATIONS
    • CHEMICAL RESURFACING PROCEDURES
    • MECHANICAL RESURFACING PROCEDURES
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    155: Phlebology and Treatment of Leg Veins

    • INTRODUCTION
    • VENOUS ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF THE PHLEBOLOGY PATIENT
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE SUPERFICIAL VENOUS SYSTEM
    • COMPRESSION IN SCLEROTHERAPY AND VENOUS DISEASE
    • SCLEROSING SOLUTIONS
    • TECHNIQUES FOR TREATING TELANGIECTASIAS AND RETICULAR VEINS
    • LARGER VARICOSE VEINS
    • POSTSCLEROTHERAPY COMPRESSION
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • AMBULATORY PHLEBECTOMY
    • ENDOVENOUS LASER AND RADIOFREQUENCY ABLATION
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

    156: Liposuction

    • INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
    • INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS
    • PREOPERATIVE HISTORY AND CONSIDERATIONS
    • THE PREOPERATIVE VISIT
    • DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUES
    • INSTRUMENTATION
    • VARIATIONS/UNUSUAL SITUATIONS
    • NON-COSMETIC LIPOSUCTION
    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • ALTERNATIVE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    157: Hair Restoration

    • INTRODUCTION
    • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • MALE AND FEMALE PATTERN HAIR LOSS (ANDROGENETIC ALOPECIA)
    • HAIR TRANSPLANTATION
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES

    158: Soft Tissue Augmentation

    • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • FILLER MATERIALS AND GENERAL INJECTION TECHNIQUE
    • TEMPORARY FILLERS
    • SEMI-PERMANENT FILLERS
    • PERMANENT FILLERS
    • CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES

    159: Botulinum Toxin

    • INTRODUCTION
    • PROPERTIES OF BOTULINUM TOXINS
    • CLINICAL USE OF BOTULINUM TOXIN TYPE A
    • DESCRIPTION OF TECHNIQUES
    • POSTPROCEDURAL CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • FUTURE TRENDS
    • REFERENCES