BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR BEGINNERS

Author: Reinhard Renneberg, Viola Berkling, Vanya Loroch
Affiliation:
Publisher: Elsevier Science and Technology
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN 10: 0128012242
ISBN 13: 9780128012246
Edition: 2nd

Description:

Biotechnology for Beginners, Second Edition, presents the latest information and developments from the field of biotechnology?the applied science of using living organisms and their by-products for commercial development?which has grown and evolved to such an extent over the past few years that increasing numbers of professionals work in areas that are directly impacted by the science. For the first time, this book offers an exciting and colorful overview of biotechnology for professionals and students in a wide array of the life sciences, including genetics, immunology, biochemistry, agronomy, and animal science. This book also appeals to the lay reader without a scientific background who is interested in an entertaining and informative introduction to the key aspects of biotechnology. Authors Renneberg and Demain discuss the opportunities and risks of individual technologies and provide historical data in easy-to-reference boxes, highlighting key topics. The book covers all major aspects of the field, from food biotechnology to enzymes, genetic engineering, viruses, antibodies, and vaccines, to environmental biotechnology, transgenic animals, analytical biotechnology, and the human genome. This stimulating book is the most user-friendly source for a comprehensive overview of this complex field.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • Notices
  • Quotes
  • Letter From the Editor
  • Contributors
  • Boxes
  • Foreword by the US Editor, Arnold Demain
  • A Personal Foreword by Tom Rapoport
  • Preface
  • Some Personal Comments About Our US Editor, Prof. Arnold Demain

Chapter 1: Beer, Bread, and Cheese: The Tasty Side of Biotechnology

  • 1.1 In the Beginning, There Was Beer and Wine—Nurturing Civilization
  • 1.2 Yeasts—The Secret Behind Alcoholic Fermentation
  • 1.3 Now as Ever, Beer Is Brewed From Yeast, Water, Malt, and Hops
  • 1.4 Cells Work on Solar Energy
  • 1.5 For Yeast, Alcohol Has Nothing to Do With Enjoyment, But All With Survival
  • 1.6 Highly Concentrated Alcohol Is Obtained by Distillation
  • 1.7 Bacterially Produced Acidic Preservatives
  • 1.8 Coffee, Cocoa, Vanilla, Tobacco—Fermentation for Enhanced Pleasure
  • 1.9 An Alliance of Molds and Bacteria in Cheese Production
  • 1.10 Sake and Soy Sauce
  • 1.11 What Exactly Is Fermentation?
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 2: Enzymes: Molecular Supercatalysts for Use at Home and in Industry

  • 2.1 Enzymes Are High-Performing and Highly Specific Biocatalysts
  • 2.2 Lysozyme—The First Enzyme to be Understood in Structure and Function Down to Minute Molecular Detail
  • 2.3 The Role of Cofactors in Complex Enzymes
  • 2.4 Animals, Plants, and Microorganisms as Enzyme Sources
  • 2.5 Extracellular Hydrolases Degrade Biopolymers Into Smaller Manageable Units
  • 2.6 Amylases Are Used for Brewing, Baking, and Desizing
  • 2.7 Pectinases Increase Fruit and Vegetable Juice Production
  • 2.8 Biological Detergents—The Most Important Application Area of Hydrolytic Enzymes
  • 2.9 Proteases for Tenderizing Meat and Bating Leather
  • 2.10 Immobilization—Reusing Valuable Enzymes
  • 2.11 Glucose Isomerase and Fructose Syrup—Boosting the Sweetness of Sugar
  • 2.12 Immobilized Enzymes in Human and Animal Food Production
  • 2.13 Making Use of Cofactor Regeneration—Enzyme Membrane Reactors
  • 2.14 Immobilized Cells
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 3: The Wonders of Gene Technology

  • 3.1 DNA—The Double Helix is a Physical Carrier of Genetic Material
  • 3.2 DNA Polymerases Catalyze the Replication of the DNA Double Strand
  • 3.3 Not All Genes Are Encrypted in DNA: RNA Viruses Use Single-Stranded RNA
  • 3.4 Deciphering the Genetic Code
  • 3.5 The Human Genome—A Giant 23-Volume Encyclopedia
  • 3.6 The DNA Code Deciphered—Artificial RNA Decodes the Codons
  • 3.7 DNA Sites Around the Structural Genes Control the Expression of Genes
  • 3.8 Ribosomes—Protein Production Plants Inside the Cell: Giant RNA and Protein Molecules
  • 3.9 Recombination—A Genetic Reshuffling of Cards
  • 3.10 Plasmids—Ideal Vectors for Genetic Material
  • 3.11 Scissors and Glue at a Molecular Level—Restriction Endonucleases and DNA Ligases
  • 3.12 First Experiments in Gene Technology—Croaking Bacteria?
  • 3.13 How to Obtain Genes
  • 3.14 Human Insulin From Bacteria?
  • 3.15 Insulin Synthesis in Humans
  • 3.16 Rat Proinsulin—The Beginnings of Genetic Engineering
  • 3.17 DNA-Hybridization—How to Find Bacteria Using DNA Probes
  • 3.18 A Slight Diversion: Somatostatin—The First Human Protein Obtained From Bacteria
  • 3.19 How Enzymes Turn Porcine Insulin Into Human Insulin
  • 3.20 Eureka! The First Genetically Engineered Insulin Is Produced
  • 3.21 Asilomar—How Dangerous Is Modern Gene Technology?
  • 3.22 Human Proinsulin Obtained From a Single E. coli Strain
  • 3.23 Baker’s Yeast for Proinsulin Production
  • 3.24 Artificial Insulin Variants (Muteins) Obtained by Protein Engineering
  • 3.25 Genetically Modified Mammalian Cells for the Production of Modified Complex Proteins
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 4: White Biotechnology: Cells as Synthetic Factories

  • 4.1 The Overview Problem
  • 4.2 Tactical Adaptation
  • 4.3 Strategic Adaptation: Enzyme Production on Demand
  • 4.4 An Allosteric Molecular Computer—Glutamine Synthetase
  • 4.5 Catabolite Repression or Fishing for Polymerase
  • 4.6 Mold Replacing Lemons
  • 4.7 Overproduction of Lysine—How Mutants Outwit the Feedback Inhibition of Aspartate Kinase
  • 4.8 L-Glutamate—“Levorotatory” Soup Seasoning in Abundance
  • 4.9 Chemical Synthesis Versus Microbial Production
  • 4.10 L-Ascorbic
  • 4.11 Aspartame—Sweet Success of a Dipeptide Ester
  • 4.12 Immobilized Cells Producing Amino Acids and Organic Acids
  • 4.13 Mutations as a Way of Targeting Microbial Programming
  • 4.14 Penicillium notatum—Alexander Fleming’s Miraculous Fungus
  • 4.15 Screening—Biotechnologists in Search of Molds
  • 4.16 What’s on the Microbial Menu?
  • 4.17 A Modern Biofactory
  • 4.18 Heat, Cold, and Dry Conditions Keep Microbes at Bay
  • 4.19 Downstream Processing
  • 4.20 Streptomycin and Cephalosporins—The Next Generation of Antibiotics
  • 4.21 The Race Against Microbial Resistance
  • 4.22 Cyclosporin—A Microbial Product Used in Transplants
  • 4.23 Steroid Hormones—Cortisone and the Contraceptive Pill
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 5: Viruses, Antibodies, and Vaccines

  • 5.1 Viruses—Borrowed Life
  • 5.2 How Viruses Attack Cells
  • 5.3 How the Body Defends Itself Against Infections—Humoral Immune Response Through Antibodies
  • 5.4 Cellular Immune Response: Killer T-Cells
  • 5.5 The First Vaccination: Cowpox Against Smallpox
  • 5.6 Contemporary Vaccination
  • 5.7 Live Vaccines
  • 5.8 Monoclonal Antibodies
  • 5.9 Catalytic Antibodies
  • 5.10 Recombinant Antibodies
  • 5.11 Recombinant Antibody Libraries
  • 5.12 Piggyback or Phage Display
  • 5.13 Phage Display for High Affinity Growth Hormone
  • 5.14 Ongoing Hope for Cancer Patients—Antibody Targeted Therapies
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 6: Environmental Biotechnology: From One-Way Streets to Traffic Circles

  • 6.1 Clean Water—A Bioproduct
  • 6.2 Aerobic Water Purification—Sewage Farms, Trickling Filters, and Activated Sludge
  • 6.3 Biogas
  • 6.4 Biogas Could Save Forests!
  • 6.5 Biogas in Industrial Countries—Using Liquid Manure
  • 6.6 Fuel Growing in the Fields
  • 6.7 Ananda Chakrabarty’s Oil-Guzzlers
  • 6.8 Sugar and Alcohol From Wood
  • 6.9 Basic Chemicals From Biomass?
  • 6.10 Silent Mining
  • 6.11 A New Life for Tired Oil Wells?
  • 6.12 Bioplastics—From Dead End to Merry-Go-Round
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 7: Green Biotechnology

  • 7.1 Microbes are Edible
  • 7.2 Algae and Cyanobacteria
  • 7.3 Single Cell Protein: The Hope for Cheap Sources of Protein
  • 7.4 Mycoprotein Is a Success With Consumers as a Plant Protein
  • 7.5 “Green” Biotechnology at the Doorstep
  • 7.6 Fields in a Test Tube: in vitro Plant Breeding
  • 7.7 Meristem Culture
  • 7.8 Haploid Cultures: Anthers and Ovaries
  • 7.9 Callus and Suspension Cultures
  • 7.10 Plant Cells in a Bioreactor Produce Active Substances
  • 7.11 What are the Active Substances From Plants That Will Follow Shikonin?
  • 7.12 Agrobacterium—A Pest as Genetic Engineer
  • 7.13 Biolistic Gene Transfer: DNA Shot From a Gun
  • 7.14 Transgenic Plants: Herbicide Resistance
  • 7.15 Biological Insecticides
  • 7.16 Blue Carnations and Antimush Tomatoes
  • 7.17 Danger From Genetically Modified Food?
  • 7.18 Should Genetically Modified Food be Labeled?
  • 7.19 Gene Pharming
  • 7.20 Transgenic Plants—A Heated Debate
  • 7.21 Tropical Palms in Snow and Ice?
  • 7.22 Dead Bacteria in Snow Guns Safeguard Skiing Holidays
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 8: Embryos, Clones, and Transgenic Animals

  • 8.1 Artificial Insemination
  • 8.2 Embryo Transfer and in vitro Fertilization
  • 8.3 Animals Threatened With Extinction Could be Saved by Embryo Transfer
  • 8.4 Chimeric Animals Have At Least Four Genetic Parents
  • 8.5 Transgenic Animals—From Giant Mouse to Giant Cow?
  • 8.6 Growth Hormones for Cows and Pigs
  • 8.7 Gene “Pharming”—Valuable Human Proteins in Milk and Eggs
  • 8.8 Transgenic Fish—From GloFish to Giant Trout
  • 8.9 Knockout Mice
  • 8.10 Xenotransplantation
  • 8.11 Cloning—Mass Production of Twins
  • 8.12 Clones of Frogs and Newts
  • 8.13 Dolly—The Breakthrough in Animal Cloning
  • 8.14 Difficulties in the Cloning Process
  • 8.15 Cloning Cats—Parental Variations
  • 8.16 What About Humans? Cloning, IVF, and PID
  • 8.17 The Embryo Yielding Its Secret
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Chapter 9: Myocardial Infarction, Cancer, and Stem Cells: Biotechnology is a Life Saver

  • 9.1 Myocardial Infarction and Anticoagulants
  • 9.2 Fibrinolysis Following Coronary Infarction: Using Enzymes to Dissolve Thrombi
  • 9.3 Stroke: Help From the Vampire Enzyme
  • 9.4 Genetically Engineered Factor VIII—Safe Help for Hemophiliacs
  • 9.5 EPO for Kidney Patients and in Sports
  • 9.6 Interferons for Fighting Viruses and Cancer
  • 9.7 Interleukins
  • 9.8 Cancer: Abnormal, Uncontrolled Cell Growth
  • 9.9 New Cancer Treatments
  • 9.10 Paclitaxel Against Cancer
  • 9.11 Human Growth Hormone
  • 9.12 Epidermal Growth Hormone—Wrinkles Disappear and Diabetic Feet Heal
  • 9.13 Stem Cells, the Ultimate Fountain of Youth?
  • 9.14 Gene Therapy
  • 9.15 The Junk Yields Its Treasures: RNAi, RNA Interference
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

CHAPTER 10: Analytical Biotechnology and the Human Genome

  • 10.1 Enzyme Tests for Millions of Diabetics
  • 10.2 Biosensors
  • 10.3 Microbial Sensors—Yeasts Measuring Water Pollution in 5 Minutes
  • 10.4 Immunological Pregnancy Tests
  • 10.5 AIDS Tests
  • 10.6 Myocardial Infarction Tests
  • 10.7 Point of Care (POC) Tests
  • 10.8 How DNA Is Analyzed—Gel Electrophoresis Separates DNA Fragments According to Size
  • 10.9 Life and Death—Genetic Fingerprinting in Establishing Paternity and Investigating Murders
  • 10.10 DNA Markers—Short Tandem Repeats and SNPs
  • 10.11 Polymerase Chain Reaction—Copying DNA on a Mega Scale
  • 10.12 A New Lease of Life For Dinosaurs and Mammoths?
  • 10.13 The Sequencing of Genes
  • 10.14 Southern Blotting
  • 10.15 Automatic DNA Sequencing
  • 10.16 FISH—Identifying the Location on a Chromosome and the Number of Gene Copies
  • 10.17 The Ultimate Biotechnological Achievement—The Human Genome Project
  • 10.18 Genetic Genome Maps
  • 10.19 Physical Genome Mapping
  • 10.20 Which Method—Contig Versus Shot Gun?
  • 10.21 The Human Genome Project—Where Do We Go from Here?
  • 10.22 … And How Can the Sequence of the Genome Be Understood?
  • 10.23 Pharmacogenomics
  • 10.24 DNA Chips
  • 10.25 Identifying the Causes of Disease—Gene Expression Profiles
  • 10.26 Proteomics
  • 10.27 MALDI TOF—A Gas From Protein Ions
  • 10.28 Aptamers and Protein Chips
  • 10.29 Quo vadis, Biotech?
  • Cited and Recommended Literature
  • Useful Weblinks

Glossary

Credits