Nausea and Vomiting Diagnosis and Treatment

Author: Kenneth Koch, William Hasler
Publisher: Springer Nature
Publication Date: 2017
ISBN 10: 3319340743
ISBN 13: 9783319340746
eISBN: 9783319340760
Edition: 1st


This volume provides a comprehensive and state-of-the-art text for health care professionals who are interested in the diagnosis and treatment of nausea and vomiting. Because the majority of causes of nausea and vomiting arise from disorders of the gastrointestinal system, the text emphasizes the GI system by organ from esophagus to colon. It also reviews how disorders of the abdominal wall, the endocrine system, and autonomic and central nervous systems can contribute to nausea and vomiting syndromes that can be difficult to diagnose. Various treatment modalities are presented and organized in terms of drug treatments, electrical stimulation devices, and dietary therapy and nutritional support. Furthermore, the book is enhanced by chapters on the pathophysiology of nausea, the pathophysiology of vomiting, the physiological changes in the brain during nausea and vomiting, and the psychological underpinnings of nausea and vomiting. And because many children are afflicted with unexplained nausea and vomiting, a chapter devoted to pediatric patients is also included.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • About the Editors
  • Contributors

1: Physiology of Nausea

  • Introduction
  • The Physiology of Nausea: From Motion to Emotion
  • Nausea and Emotion/Disgust
  • The Pathophysiology of Nausea and Gastric Neuromuscular Dysfunction
  • The Pathophysiology of Nausea and Small Bowel and Colonic Dysfunction
  • Conclusions
  • References

2: The Physiology of Vomiting

  • Introduction
  • What Is Vomiting (Emesis)?
  • Which Stimuli and Sensory Pathways Activate the Emetic Reflex?
  • Where Is the Location of the Emetic Central Pattern Generator?
  • What Are the Mechanics of Vomiting?
  • Which Drug Therapies Control Emesis?
  • Why Do Some Animals Lack a Vomiting Reflex Circuit?
  • Conclusion
  • References

3: Nausea and Vomiting Related to Esophagus and Stomach Diseases

  • Introduction
  • Esophageal Diseases and Nausea and Vomiting
  • Gastric Neuromuscular Disorders and Nausea and Vomiting
  • Nausea and Vomiting and Stomach Neuromuscular Diseases: A Rational Treatment Approach
  • Conclusions and The Future
  • References

4: Nausea and Vomiting Related to Non-esophageal and Non-Gastric Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract

  • Introduction
  • Socioeconomic Costs
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Infectious Causes
  • Mechanical Obstruction
  • Organic Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Mesenteric Ischemia
  • Systemic Autoimmune Diseases
  • Motility Disorders
  • Enteric Neuropathy
  • Myopathic Disorders
  • Functional Causes
  • References

5: Nausea and Vomiting Associated with Abdominal Wall Pain

  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis and Treatment
  • References

6: Nausea, Vomiting, and Hormonal Disorders

  • Introduction
  • Adrenal Insufficiency (AI)
  • Thyroid Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Epidemiology
  • Normal Postprandial Gastric Neuromuscular Activity (Fig. 6.1)
  • Pathophysiology of Diabetic Gastroparesis
  • Clinical Presentation
  • Tests for Gastroparesis
  • Treatment of the Patient with Diabetes and Gastroparesis
  • Acute Management of Exacerbation of Symptoms Associated with Gastroparesis
  • Glucose Control in the Patient with Diabetes and Gastroparesis
  • Pharmacological Glucose Management
  • Insulin Administration for the Patient with Gastroparesis
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • References

7: Nausea and Vomiting Related to Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
  • Overview of the ANS
  • Brief Review of the Autonomic Pathways of Nausea and Vomiting
  • Mechanism of Nausea and Vomiting of GI Tract Etiology
  • Orthostatic Intolerance and POTS
  • Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS)
  • Gastroparesis
  • Autonomic Function Testing (AFT)
  • Conclusion
  • References

8: Nausea and Vomiting Related to the Central Nervous System Diseases

  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Central Pathway of Nausea and Vomiting
  • Central Causes of Nausea and Vomiting
  • Migraine
  • Parkinson’s Disease
  • Stroke
  • Demyelinating Diseases
  • Brain Metastasis
  • Seizure
  • Pseudotumor Cerebri
  • Other Causes
  • Conclusion
  • References

9: Pharmacological Causes and Treatments of Nausea and Vomiting

  • Introduction
  • Neurotransmitter Mediation of Nausea and Vomiting: Relation to Medication Effects
  • Medication-Induced Nausea and Vomiting
  • Medications Used to Treat Nausea and Vomiting
  • Medication Management in Selected Clinical Situations
  • Relative Medication Effects on Nausea Versus Vomiting
  • Clinical Implications and Future Directions
  • References

10: Gastric Electrical Stimulation, Pyloroplasty, Gastrectomy, and Acustimulation for the Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting in the Setting of Gastroparesis

  • Introduction
  • Basic Myoelectric Stomach Activity
  • Gastric Electrical Stimulation
  • Physiologic Frequency Electrical Stimulation (Pacing)
  • High-Frequency Electrical Stimulation (Neurostimulation)
  • Mechanisms of Symptom Improvement with Gastric Neurostimulation
  • Surgical Implantation of the GES
  • Adverse Events Associated with GES
  • Response Predictors
  • The Application of Pyloroplasty in the Setting of GES
  • The Role of Gastrectomy for Treating Gastroparesis
  • Acustimulation
  • Conclusion and a Look into the Future
  • References

11: Nutritional Management for Patients with Nausea and Vomiting and Gastroparesis or Dumping Syndrome

  • Introduction
  • Nutritional Management for Patients with Gastroparesis
  • Gastroparesis: Accommodation and Trituration are Keys to Understanding the Gastroparesis Diet
  • The Gastroparesis Diet
  • Enteral Nutrition
  • Nutritional Management for Patients with Dumping Syndrome
  • Conclusion
  • References

12: Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Nausea and Vomiting

  • Introduction
  • Herbal Remedies for Nausea and Vomiting
  • Ginseng
  • Acupuncture, Acupressure and Acustimulation
  • Conclusions
  • References

13: Vomiting and Nausea in the Pediatric Patient

  • Abbreviations
  • Epidemiology of Chronic Nausea and Vomiting in Children
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Conclusions
  • References

14: The Psychophysiology of Nausea

  • Introduction
  • Physiological Factors in the Development of Nausea
  • Psychosocial and Behavioral Influences on Nausea
  • Conclusion
  • References

15: Future Directions in Understanding Nausea and Vomiting

  • Introduction
  • Pathophysiology
  • Disorders Causing Nausea and Vomiting
  • Future Directions
  • Conclusions
  • References