PREVENTIVE NUTRITION This title has been archived.

Author: Adrianne Bendich, PhD, FACN, Richard Deckelbaum, MD, FRCP(C), Alfred Sommer, MD, MHS
Affiliation: GlaxoSmithKline, Parsippany, NJ
Publisher: Humana Press
Publication Date: 2005
ISBN 10: 1588294455
ISBN 13: 9781588294456
Edition: 3rd

Description:

In this greatly-expanded third edition, leading nutritionists, public health experts, and clinicians bring up-to-date and extend this now classic guide to improving individual health outcomes through nutrition. The new edition encompasses the broadest range of topics, from cancer and cardiovascular disease to infectious disease in children, from reproductive and prenatal nutrition to global public health nutrition strategies. Each chapter provides an overview of the field, a discussion of the author's own research and its implications, and recommendations for various patient groups based on the totality of evidence rather than on the findings of any single study. Authoritative and readily accessible this new edition is the most comprehensive and up-to-date textbook in the field. It provides practicing health professionals with a critical synthesis of all the newest research, demonstrating that the risk of many of the major diseases affecting middle-aged adults can be prevented, or at least delayed, with simple nutritional approaches.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • DEDICATION
  • NUTRITION ◇ AND ◇ HEALTH
  • Series Editor’s Introduction
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • Value-Added eBook/PDA

I PREVENTIVE NUTRITION OVERVIEW

    Preventive Nutrition

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. FACTORS INFLUENCING NUTRITION AND CHRONIC DISEASE PREVENTION
    • 3. POLICY IMPLICATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    • REFERENCES

II CANCER PREVENTION

    Prevention of Cancers of the Esophagus and Stomach

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS
    • 3. CANCER OF THE STOMACH
    • 4. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Non-Nutritive Components in Foods as Modifiers of the Cancer Process

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. CINNAMIC ACID
    • 3. FLAVONOIDS
    • 4. INDOLES
    • 5. ISOTHIOCYANATES
    • 6. ORGANOSULFUR COMPOUNDS
    • 7. TERPENES
    • 8. CONCLUSIONS
    • 9. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Dietary Supplements and Cancer Risk

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. BACKGROUND IMPORTANT IN INTERPRETING PUBLISHED STUDIES
    • 3. REVIEW OF STUDIES ON VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS AND CANCER RISK
    • 4. DISCUSSION
    • 5. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Soy Consumption and Cancer Prevention

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. THE ROLE OF SOY PRODUCTS IN CANCER PREVENTION
    • 3. CRITICAL ISSUES IN SOY AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH
    • 4. FUTURE RESEARCH
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Tomato, Lycopene, and Prostate Cancer

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. TOMATO CONSUMPTION AND COMPOSITION
    • 3. BIOAVAILABILITY: FOOD PROCESSING AND THE PRESENCE OF LIPIDS
    • 4. EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • 5. CELL CULTURE
    • 6. ANIMAL STUDIES
    • 7. HUMAN STUDIES
    • 8. PLAUSIBLE MECHANISMS
    • 9. CRITICAL ISSUES
    • 10. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES

III CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE PREVENTION

    Iron and Heart Disease

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. SERUM MEASURES OF BODY IRON STORES
    • 3. BODY IRON STORES AND RISK OF HEART DISEASE: THE EPIDEMIOLOGICAL DATA
    • 4. IRON OVERLOAD AND CHD RISK
    • 5. SUMMARY
    • 6. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Homocysteine, Folic Acid, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. HOMOCYSTEINE
    • 3. FOLATE AND HOMOCYSTEINE
    • 4. HOMOCYSTEINE AND CVD
    • 5. MTHFR, FOLATE INTAKE, AND CVD RISK
    • 6. FOLATE AND CVD
    • 7. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
    • 8. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    n-3 Fatty Acids from Fish and Plants

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. ANTIARRHYTHMIC ACTIONS
    • 3. THROMBOSIS
    • 4. EXPERIMENTAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND FISH OIL
    • 5. EFFECTS ON THE PLASMA LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS
    • 6. FISH OIL IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETES
    • 7. HYPERTENSION
    • 8. CONCLUSION
    • 9. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Antioxidant Vitamin Supplementation and Cardiovascular Disease

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. FREE RADICALS, OXIDATION, ANTIOXIDANTS, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    • 3. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR ANTI-ATHEROGENIC EFFECTS OF ANTIOXIDANTS
    • 4. COMPLETED RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS
    • 5. SUMMARY OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF ANTIOXIDANT VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTATION
    • 6. ONGOING RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS
    • 7. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Health Effects of Trans Fatty Acids

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOODS
    • 3. METABOLISM
    • 4. EFFECTS OF TRANS MONOUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS ON SERUM LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS
    • 5. EFFECTS OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS ON OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR CHD
    • 6. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES
    • 7. CANCER
    • 8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

IV DIABETES AND OBESITY

    Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Childhood and Adolescence

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. INSULIN RESISTANCE SYNDROME
    • 3. ASSESSMENT OF OBESITY
    • 4. ETIOLOGY OF OBESITY
    • 5. ENERGY INTAKE
    • 6. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF COMPOSITION OF DIET
    • 7. TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
    • 8. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Prevention of Pediatric Obesity

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. PRIORITIZING THE PREVENTION OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY
    • 3. COMORBIDITIES IN CHILDHOOD
    • 4. MECHANISMS OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY
    • 5. PREVENTION OF CHILDHOOD OBESITY
    • 6. APPROACHES TO PREVENTION: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES
    • 7. FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • 8. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES

    Can Childhood Obesity Be Prevented?

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. EARLY CHILDHOOD OBESITY TRENDS: UNITED STATES
    • 3. DIETARY INTAKE IN EARLY CHILDHOOD: WHAT ARE PRESCHOOL CHILDREN EATING?
    • 4. DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR PRESCHOOL CHILDREN
    • 5. FEDERAL PRESCHOOL NUTRITION PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES
    • 6. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Obesity and Chronic Disease

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. OBESITY-RELATED HEALTH RISKS AND THE BENEFITS OF WEIGHT LOSS
    • 3. INTERVENTION THERAPIES: MANAGEMENT OF OBESE PATIENTS
    • 4. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

V BONE DISEASES

    Osteoarthritis

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION: OSTEOARTHRITIS
    • 2. RISK FACTORS FOR OSTEOARTHRITIS
    • 3. OSTEOARTHRITIS AND DIET
    • 4. MECHANISMS THROUGH WHICH MICRONUTRIENTS CAN BE HYPOTHESIZED TO INFLUENCE OSTEOARTHRITIS PROCESSES
    • 5. STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS IN OSTEOARTHRITIS
    • 6. STUDIES OF OTHER NUTRIENTS IN OSTEOARTHRITIS
    • 7. OTHER NUTRITIONAL PRODUCTS
    • 8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Calcium Requirements During Treatment of Osteoporosis in Women

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. RATIONALE FOR SUPPLEMENTATION
    • 3. EFFECTS OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON BONE TURNOVER AND BMD
    • 4. EFFECTS OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTATION ON FRACTURE RISK REDUCTION
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Osteoporosis

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. CALCIUM
    • 3. VITAMIN D
    • 4. PROTEIN
    • 5. VITAMIN K
    • 6. MAGNESIUM
    • 7. TRACE MINERALS
    • 8. NUTRITION AND HIP FRACTURE
    • 9. NUTRITION AND GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS
    • 10. RECOMMENDATION
    • REFERENCES

VI PREVENTION OF MAJOR DISABILITIES: IMPROVEMENT IN HEALTH OUTCOMES

    Antioxidant Status and Risk for Cataract

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. ETIOLOGY OF CATARACT
    • 3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES REGARDING ANTIOXIDANTS AND CATARACT
    • 4. CONSIDERATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES

    Antioxidant Nutrients and Prevention of Oxidant-Mediated Diseases

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. CIGARETTE SMOKING
    • 3. HARMFUL ACTIVITIES OF OXIDANTS
    • 4. ANTIOXIDANT NUTRIENTS AND SMOKING-RELATED DISEASES
    • 5. PREDICTORS OF OXIDANT-MEDIATED DISEASE
    • 6. CIRCULATING LEUKOCYTE COUNTS AND RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE OF VITAMINS C AND E AND β -CAROTENE
    • 7. CONCLUSIONS
    • 8. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Nutritional Supplements and Upper Respiratory Tract Illnesses in Young Children in the United States

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. BACKGROUND
    • 3. CLINICAL RESEARCH
    • 4. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • 5. THE MODERN ERA
    • 6. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES

    Micronutrients and Immunity in Older People

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. AGING AND IMMUNITY
    • 3. MICRONUTRIENTS AND IMMUNITY
    • 4. FACTORS THAT CAN INFLUENCE NUTRITION–IMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS
    • 5. RESEARCH NEEDED ON MICRONUTRIENTS AND IMMUNITY IN OLDER PEOPLE
    • 6. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Vitamin A and the Prevention of Morbidity, Mortality, and Blindness

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. METABOLISM OF VITAMIN A
    • 3. EFFECTS OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY
    • 4. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY
    • 5. DIAGNOSIS OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY
    • 6. OTHER
    • 7. VITAMIN A AS A PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION
    • 8. PREVENTION OF VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY
    • 9. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES

VII OPTIMAL PREGNANCY/INFANCY OUTCOMES

    Folic Acid-Containing Multivitamins and Primary Prevention of Birth Defects

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. INTERVENTION STUDIES FOR REDUCTION OF RECURRENT NTDS AND OFCS
    • 3. PERICONCEPTION CARE: PLANNING FOR PREGNANCY FOR BOTH PARTNERS
    • 4. THE HUNGARIAN RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
    • 5. TWO-COHORT CONTROLLED STUDY
    • 6. OTHER NTD STUDIES
    • 7. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • 8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION TO REDUCE BIRTH DEFECT RISKS
    • 9. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Maternal Nutrition and Preterm Delivery

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE OF PRETERM DELIVERY
    • 2. RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PRETERM DELIVERY
    • 3. MATERNAL WEIGHT AND WEIGHT GAIN
    • 4. DIET AND GESTATIONAL WEIGHT GAIN
    • 5. DIET AND PRETERM DELIVERY
    • 6. IRON
    • 7. MICRONUTRIENTS
    • 8. OTHER NUTRIENTS
    • 9. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids for Optimal Neurodevelopment

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. BACKGROUND ON THE ESSENTIAL POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS AND THEIR METABOLISM
    • 3. PUFA IN HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
    • 4. CONCLUSIONS
    • 5. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FORMULA-FED INFANTS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    • REFERENCES

    Micronutrient Deficiencies and Maternal Thinness

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT
    • 3. MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES, HUMAN CAPITAL, AND LOST GENERATION
    • 4. THE INDONESIAN CRISIS
    • 5. HELEN KELLER INTERNATIONAL NUTRITIONAL SURVEILLANCE
    • 6. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR CAUSES OF MALNUTRITION
    • 7. INDICATORS OF CHANGES OF MALNUTRITION RESULTING FROM THE CRISIS
    • 8. INDONESIA: 1999 TO 2003
    • 9. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

VIII PREVENTIVE NUTRITION: GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES

    Potential Benefits of Preventive Nutrition Strategies

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE
    • 3. SPECIFIC DIETARY COMPONENTS
    • 4. BODY WEIGHT
    • 5. ALCOHOL
    • 6. VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS
    • 7. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Nutrition and Food Policy in Norway

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE NORWEGIAN NUTRITION AND FOOD POLICY
    • 2. THE STRUGGLE FOR INTRODUCING NEW RECOMMENDATIONS IN GOVERNMENT POLICIES
    • 3. GOVERNMENTAL WHITE PAPERS ON NUTRITION AND FOOD POLICY
    • 4. RESISTANCE AGAINST THE NUTRITION AND FOOD POLICY
    • 5. THE CURRENT NUTRITION AND FOOD POLICY IN NORWAY
    • 6. GOVERNMENTAL IMPLEMENTATION BODIES
    • 7. SOME RESULTS OF THE NORWEGIAN NATIONAL NUTRITION AND FOOD POLICY
    • 8. IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE NATIONAL NUTRITION AND FOOD POLICY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION
    • 9. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Prevention of Malnutrition in Chile

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    • 3. PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
    • 4. OUR EXPERIENCE IN NUTRITIONAL POLICY
    • 5. FINAL COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Effect of Westernization of Nutritional Habits on Obesity Prevalence in Latin America

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. SOCIOECONOMIC CHANGES
    • 3. FOOD HABITS
    • 4. PREVALENCE OF OBESITY
    • 5. CONCLUSION
    • 6. PROGRAMS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Effects of Western Diet on Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases in Asia

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHRONIC DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS
    • 3. NUTRITIONAL STATES
    • 4. ATHEROSCLEROSIS AND NUTRITION
    • 5. NUTRITIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

IX CRITICAL ISSUES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    Alcohol

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. BALANCING CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES
    • 3. BALANCING DIVERSITY AND COLLECTIVITY
    • 4. BALANCING NUTRIENTS AND TOXINS
    • 5. BALANCING RISK FACTORS AND CAUSES
    • 6. BALANCING IGNORANCE AND KNOWLEDGE
    • 7. RECOMMENDATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    • REFERENCES

    Influence of Medication on Nutritional Status

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. MECHANISMS OF ALTERED NUTRITIONAL STATUS
    • 3. FOOD INTAKE
    • 4. DIGESTION
    • 5. MACRONUTRIENTS
    • 6. VITAMINS
    • 7. MINERALS
    • 8. SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

    Health Claims for Foods and Dietary Supplements

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. PUBLIC HEALTH RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES
    • 3. THE US FOOD MARKETPLACE AND THE LAW
    • 4. US HEALTH CLAIMS REGULATIONS
    • 5. FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION MODERNIZATION ACT OF 1997 HEALTH CLAIMS
    • 6. COURT OF APPEALS DECISION
    • 7. THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION’S INITIATIVE ON CONSUMER HEALTH INFORMATION FOR BETTER NUTRITION
    • 8. STATEMENTS ABOUT EFFECTS ON STRUCTURE OR FUNCTION
    • 9. HEALTH CLAIMS POLICY OUTSIDE THE UNITED STATES
    • 10. OUTLOOK FOR THE NEXT DECADE
    • REFERENCES

    Teaching Preventive Nutrition in Medical Schools

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. WHY SHOULD HEALTH PROFESSIONALS HAVE NUTRITION EXPERTISE?
    • 2. WHAT NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE HELPS HEALTH PROFESSIONALS TO PROMOTE DISEASE PREVENTION?
    • 3. WHERE AND WHEN CAN PHYSICIANS LEARN TO USE PREVENTIVE NUTRITION?
    • 4. HOW CAN NUTRITION BE TAUGHT?
    • 5. AN ADAPTIVE LEARNING MODE
    • 6. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES

    Preventive Nutrition Throughout the Life Cycle

    • KEY POINTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTIONS TO OPTIMIZE PREGNANCY OUTCOMES
    • 3. STUDIES OF BIRTH DEFECT AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PREVENTION FROM DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
    • 4. REDUCTION IN PRE-ECLAMPSIA AND OTHER PREGNANCY-ASSOCIATED ADVERSE EFFECTS
    • 5. CHILDHOOD
    • 6. THE ADULT CHRONIC DISEASES
    • 7. KEY MICRONUTRIENTS FOR DISEASE PREVENTION
    • 8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
    • REFERENCES

Appendix A Related Readings

Appendix B