GOLDMAN'S CECIL MEDICINE This title has been archived.

Author: Lee Goldman, MD, Andrew Schafer, MD
Affiliation: Columbia University; New York, NY
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
Publication Date: 2012
ISBN 10: 1437716040
ISBN 13: 9781437716047
Edition: 24th

Description:

Since 1927, Goldman's Cecil Medicine has been the world's most influential internal medicine reference. Edited by Lee Goldman, MD and Andrew I. Schafer, MD, with associate editors and contributors who number among the most recognized and respected authorities in the field, Cecil continues to set the standard for all other resources of its kind. This dynamic, multi-media reference - with its practical, straight-forward style, accessible organization, evidence-ranked references, and robust online content - is quite simply the fastest and best place to find all of the authoritative, state-of-the-art clinical answers you need. Definitive, unbiased, evidence-based guidance is at your fingertips in print and online at www.expertconsult.com, with regular updates by Dr. Goldman to ensure that the content is as current as the day the book was published! More successfully than other resources, it lets you optimally understand, diagnose, and treat any medical disorder you encounter in practice. Its focused coverage nimbly integrates the latest developments in biology with current evidence-based diagnosis and therapy - including medication doses. A dynamic, masterfully organized format delivers fast access to the actionable information you need.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • QUICK REFERENCE (QR) VIDEO ACCESS
  • Notices
  • ASSOCIATE EDITORS
  • PREFACE
  • CONTRIBUTORS

SECTION I SOCIAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES IN MEDICINE

    1: APPROACH TO MEDICINE, THE PATIENT, AND THE MEDICAL PROFESSION: MEDICINE AS A LEARNED AND HUMANE PROFESSION

    • APPROACH TO MEDICINE
    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT
    • APPROACH TO THE MEDICAL PROFESSION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    2: BIOETHICS IN THE PRACTICE OF MEDICINE

    • PHYSICIAN-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP: INFORMED CONSENT
    • TERMINATION OF MEDICAL INTERVENTIONS
    • ASSISTED SUICIDE AND EUTHANASIA
    • FINANCIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    3: CARE OF DYING PATIENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES

    • PALLIATIVE CARE DOMAINS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    4: CULTURAL CONTEXT OF MEDICINE

    • DISPARITIES IN HEALTH CARE ACCESS AND QUALITY
    • CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN HEALTH CARE
    • SUMMARY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    5: SOCIOECONOMIC ISSUES IN MEDICINE

    • SOCIAL STATUS INFLUENCES HEALTH
    • ECONOMIC ISSUES IN MEDICAL CARE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION II PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT

    6: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT: HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    • OVERVIEW
    • MEDICAL HISTORY
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • SUMMARIZING THE FINDINGS FOR THE PATIENT
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    7: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH ABNORMAL VITAL SIGNS

    • THE IMPORTANCE OF VITAL SIGNS
    • MEASURING VITAL SIGNS
    • ROLE OF VITAL SIGNS IN MANAGEMENT OF THE PATIENT
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    8: STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF DATA

    • ROLE OF STATISTICS
    • SAMPLING: SELECTING SUBJECTS FOR A STUDY
    • DESCRIBING THE SAMPLE
    • INFERRING POPULATION VALUES FROM A SAMPLE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    9: USING DATA FOR CLINICAL DECISIONS

    • SHOULD I ORDER A TEST?
    • WHICH TEST IS BEST?
    • CHOOSING A STRATEGY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    10: MEASURING HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE

    • MEASUREMENT OF HEALTH CARE
    • STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENT
    • TYPES OF MEASURES
    • SOURCES OF DATA FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE
    • DESIGN OF MEASUREMENT STUDIES
    • TRENDS IN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    11: QUALITY OF CARE AND PATIENT SAFETY

    • QUALITY
    • PATIENT SAFETY
    • VALUE: CONNECTING SAFETY AND QUALITY TO COST
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    12: COMPREHENSIVE CHRONIC DISEASE MANAGEMENT

    • THE GOALS OF CHRONIC CARE MANAGEMENT
    • MATCHING PATIENT NEEDS AND CARE DELIVERY
    • TRANSFORMING PRACTICE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION III PREVENTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

    13: COUNSELING FOR BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    • MODEL FOR OFFICE-BASED BEHAVIORAL CHANGE COUNSELING
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    14: THE PERIODIC HEALTH EXAMINATION

    • HISTORY AND RISK ASSESSMENT
    • SCREENING FOR EARLY DISEASE OR ASYMPTOMATIC RISK FACTORS
    • BEHAVIORAL INTERVENTIONS
    • IMMUNIZATIONS
    • CHEMOPREVENTION
    • FUTURE ISSUES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    15: PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    16: ADOLESCENT MEDICINE

    • NORMAL PHYSICAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
    • NORMAL PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
    • VITAL STATISTICS
    • APPROACH TO THE ADOLESCENT PATIENT
    • REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
    • ADOLESCENT EATING DISORDERS
    • SUBSTANCE ABUSE
    • CHRONIC ILLNESS AND TRANSITION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    17: IMMUNIZATION

    • GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMUNIZATIONS
    • INDIVIDUAL IMMUNOBIOLOGICS
    • VACCINES INTENDED PRIMARILY FOR INTERNATIONAL TRAVELERS
    • VACCINES FOR POSSIBLE BIOTERRORISM AGENTS
    • OTHER VACCINES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    18: PRINCIPLES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE

    • PRINCIPLES OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASE
    • OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DISORDERS COMMON IN PRACTICE
    • COMMON HAZARDOUS EXPOSURES IN THE WORKPLACE AND AMBIENT ENVIRONMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    19: RADIATION INJURY

    • IONIZING RADIATION INJURY
    • NONIONIZING RADIATION INJURY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    20: BIOTERRORISM

    • BIOLOGIC WEAPONS
    • ANTHRAX
    • SMALLPOX
    • PLAGUE
    • BOTULISM
    • TULAREMIA
    • VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVER
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    21: CHRONIC POISONING: TRACE METALS AND OTHERS

    • Lead
    • Mercury
    • Arsenic
    • Cadmium
    • Manganese
    • Nickel
    • OTHER TOXIC METALS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION IV AGING AND GERIATRIC MEDICINE

    22: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF AGING: IMPLICATIONS OF THE AGING OF SOCIETY

    • DEMOGRAPHIC REVOLUTION: TRANSITION TO AN AGING SOCIETY
    • HEALTH OF OLDER ADULTS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    23: GERIATRIC ASSESSMENT

    • FUNCTIONAL STATUS
    • PROGNOSIS
    • PATIENT GOALS
    • COMPONENTS OF GERIATRIC ASSESSMENT
    • PREVENTIVE SERVICES
    • NONMEDICAL ASSESSMENTS
    • A STRATEGIC APPROACH TO GERIATRIC ASSESSMENT FOR THE PRACTICING CLINICIAN
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    24: COMMON CLINICAL SEQUELAE OF AGING

    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOBIOLOGY
    • EFFECTS OF AGING ON SPECIFIC ORGANS AND SYSTEMS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    25: INCONTINENCE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    26: NEUROPSYCHIATRIC ASPECTS OF AGING  

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    27: DELIRIUM OR ACUTE MENTAL STATUS CHANGE IN THE OLDER PATIENT

    • DELIRIUM
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION V CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

    28: PRINCIPLES OF DRUG THERAPY

    • PHARMACOKINETIC PRINCIPLES
    • APPLYING PHARMACOKINETIC PRINCIPLES
    • MONITORING DRUG CONCENTRATION AS A GUIDE TO THERAPY
    • ADJUSTING DRUG DOSE WITH DISEASE
    • APPROACH TO DRUG OVERDOSE
    • USING DRUGS IN THE ELDERLY
    • INTERACTIONS BETWEEN DRUGS
    • ADVERSE REACTIONS TO DRUGS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 29: PAIN  

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 30: BIOLOGY OF ADDICTION

    • RISK FACTORS FOR ADDICTION
    • REWARD CIRCUITRY: THE NEURAL SUBSTRATE OF ADDICTION
    • PROPERTIES OF ADDICTIVE DRUGS
    • DRUG-INDUCED NEURAL PLASTICITY RELEVANT TO ADDICTION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 31: NICOTINE AND TOBACCO

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 32: ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 33: DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    • MAJOR DRUGS OF ABUSE
    • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 34: IMMUNOSUPPRESSING DRUGS INCLUDING CORTICOSTEROIDS

    • IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE DRUGS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 35: BIOLOGIC AGENTS

    • TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α INHIBITORS
    • INTERLEUKIN-1 INHIBITORS
    • INTERLEUKIN-6 INHIBITORS
    • ANTIBODY AGAINST INTERLEUKIN-12 AND INTERLEUKIN-23
    • INHIBITORS OF ANGIOGENESIS
    • INHIBITORS OF TUMOR GROWTH FACTORS
    • OTHER TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS
    • BIOLOGIC AGENTS TARGETING T LYMPHOCYTES
    • BIOLOGIC AGENTS TARGETING B LYMPHOCYTES
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 36: PROSTANOIDS, ASPIRIN, AND RELATED COMPOUNDS

    • BIOSYNTHESIS AND ACTION OF PROSTANOIDS
    • MEASUREMENTS OF THE PROSTAGLANDIN H SYNTHASE PATHWAY
    • CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OF PROSTAGLANDIN H SYNTHASE INHIBITION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 37: ANTITHROMBOTIC THERAPY

    • PHARMACOLOGIC AGENTS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 38: COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

    • COMPLEMENTARY AND INTEGRATIVE INTERVENTIONS
    • THE IMPORTANCE OF PATIENT BELIEFS, EXPECTATIONS, AND CULTURES
    • INDIGENOUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS AND TRADITIONAL HEALING PRACTICES
    • TRADITIONAL VERSUS MODERN MEDICINE: THE MIND AND THE BODY
    • THE MIND-BODY CONNECTION
    • WHY DO PATIENTS SEEK INTEGRATIVE INTERVENTIONS?
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION VI GENETICS

    Chapter 39: PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS

    • GENETIC CONTRIBUTION TO DISEASE
    • CONCLUSION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 40: GENE, GENOMIC, AND CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    • THE HUMAN GENOME
    • GENE
    • GENETIC VARIATION
    • CHROMOSOMES
    • MUTATION
    • PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE
    • ASSAYING GENETIC VARIATION
    • CONCLUSION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 41: THE INHERITED BASIS OF COMMON DISEASES

    • HERITABILITY: INHERITED VARIATION IN DISEASE RISK
    • HETEROZYGOSITY: INHERITED VARIATION IN GENOME SEQUENCE
    • THE SEARCH FOR GENES UNDERLYING MONOGENIC DISEASES
    • GENETIC INVESTIGATION OF COMMON DISEASES
    • ASSOCIATION STUDIES: FROM CANDIDATE GENES TO GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES
    • FROM COMMON VARIANTS TO INDIVIDUAL GENOMES
    • IMPLICATIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    42: APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES TO CLINICAL MEDICINE

    • MOLECULAR TECHNOLOGIES ALONG THE CONTINUUM FROM HEALTH TO DISEASE
    • GENES, GENOMES, DISEASE, AND TREATMENT
    • THE EXPRESSED GENOME
    • ASSEMBLING MOLECULAR INFORMATION FOR CLINICAL DECISION MAKING
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    43: CELL AND GENE THERAPY

    • CELL THERAPY
    • GENE THERAPY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION VII PRINCIPLES OF IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION

    44: THE INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEMS

    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • ADAPTIVE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    45: THE MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX

    • HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGENS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    46: MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE-MEDIATED TISSUE INJURY

    • THE ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    47: MECHANISMS OF INFLAMMATION AND TISSUE REPAIR

    • THE INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    48: TRANSPLANTATION IMMUNOLOGY

    • DEFINITION
    • ANTIGENS IN TRANSPLANTATION
    • MECHANISMS OF REJECTION AND GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE
    • STRATEGIES TO PREVENT GRAFT-VERSUS-HOST DISEASE
    • STRATEGIES TO PREVENT ALLOGRAFT REJECTION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    49: COMPLEMENT IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

    • ACTIVATION OF COMPLEMENT
    • COMPLEMENT INHIBITORS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION VIII CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    50: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH POSSIBLE CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    • USING THE HISTORY TO DETECT CARDIOVASCULAR SYMPTOMS
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION FOR DETECTION OF SIGNS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    • SUMMARY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    51: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

    • BURDEN OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    • PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PREVENTION
    • RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE
    • NEW BIOMARKERS OF SUBCLINICAL DAMAGE OR DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    52: CARDIAC FUNCTION AND CIRCULATORY CONTROL

    • STRUCTURE OF THE HEART
    • ANATOMY OF THE HEART
    • PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HEART AND CIRCULATORY CONTROL
    • CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO STRESSORS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    53: RADIOLOGY OF THE HEART

    • RADIOLOGIC ANATOMY
    • HEART SIZE
    • CHAMBER ENLARGEMENT
    • CALCIFICATION
    • PERICARDIAL EFFUSION
    • PULMONARY VASCULATURE
    • THE HEART AND PORTABLE FILMS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    54: ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY  

    • NORMAL FUNCTION AND ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    • APPROACH TO INTERPRETING THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    55: ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY  

    • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC IMAGING
    • DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC APPROACHES
    • CARDIAC FUNCTION MEASUREMENTS
    • THE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION
    • INTEGRATING THE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL FINDINGS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    56: NONINVASIVE CARDIAC IMAGING

    • NUCLEAR CARDIOLOGY
    • CARDIAC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
    • CARDIOVASCULAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    57: CATHETERIZATION AND ANGIOGRAPHY

    • INDICATIONS AND CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
    • TECHNIQUE OF CATHETERIZATION
    • COMPLICATIONS OF CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
    • HEMODYNAMIC DATA OBTAINED DURING CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
    • CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY
    • ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES PERFORMED IN THE CATHETERIZATION LABORATORY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    58: HEART FAILURE: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSIS

    • HEART FAILURE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    59: HEART FAILURE: MANAGEMENT AND PROGNOSIS

    • EVALUATION AND MANAGEMENT OF HEART FAILURE
    • STAGES OF HEART FAILURE
    • END-OF-LIFE CONSIDERATIONS
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    60: DISEASES OF THE MYOCARDIUM AND ENDOCARDIUM

    • MYOCARDIAL DISEASE
    • DISEASES OF THE ENDOCARDIUM
    • CARDIAC TUMORS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    61: PRINCIPLES OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

    • CARDIAC ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    62: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH SUSPECTED ARRHYTHMIA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    63: APPROACH TO CARDIAC ARREST AND LIFE-THREATENING ARRHYTHMIAS

    • PREDISPOSING WIDE-QRS COMPLEX TACHYCARDIAS
    • GENERAL MANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC ARREST
    • MANAGEMENT OF TACHYARRHYTHMIC CARDIAC ARRESTS
    • MANAGEMENT OF CARDIAC ARREST CAUSED BY ASYSTOLE, BRADYARRHYTHMIAS, OR PULSELESS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY
    • ADJUNCTIVE THERAPEUTIC ACTIONS
    • LONG-TERM MANAGEMENT
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    64: CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS WITH SUPRAVENTRICULAR ORIGIN

    • ANATOMY AND NORMAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY
    • BRADYARRHYTHMIAS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    65: VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS

    • TYPES OF VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS
    • PREMATURE VENTRICULAR CONTRACTIONS AND NONSUSTAINED VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA
    • IDIOVENTRICULAR RHYTHMS
    • SUSTAINED MONOMORPHIC VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA
    • POLYMORPHIC VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA
    • VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION
    • INCESSANT VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA AND ELECTRICAL STORM
    • VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS IN PATIENTS WITH IMPLANTABLE DEFIBRILLATORS
    • ANTIARRHYTHMIC DRUGS FOR VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIAS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    66: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES AND SURGERY

    • PACEMAKERS
    • TRANSTHORACIC CARDIOVERSION AND DEFIBRILLATION
    • IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER-DEFIBRILLATORS
    • RADIO FREQUENCY CATHETER ABLATION
    • ARRHYTHMIA SURGERY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    67: ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    68: PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    69: CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN ADULTS  

    • SIMPLE LESIONS
    • SPECIFIC COMPLEX LESIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    70: ATHEROSCLEROSIS, THROMBOSIS, AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY

    • RISK FACTORS FOR ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    • FORMATION OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS
    • GROWTH, DEATH, AND THE PROGRESSION OF DISEASE
    • PLAQUE ACTIVATION, THROMBOSIS, AND INFARCTION
    • PRINCIPLES OF ANTIATHEROSCLEROTIC THERAPY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    71: ANGINA PECTORIS AND STABLE ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    72: ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME: UNSTABLE ANGINA AND NON-ST ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    • Garde A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    73: ST SEGMENT ELEVATION ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND COMPLICATIONS OF MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    74: INTERVENTIONAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE  

    • PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION
    • CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY VERSUS MEDICAL THERAPY
    • CORONARY ARTERY SURGERY
    • INDICATIONS FOR BYPASS SURGERY
    • PERCUTANEOUS CORONARY INTERVENTION VERSUS CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

    75: VALVULAR HEART DISEASE

    • AORTIC STENOSIS
    • MITRAL STENOSIS
    • MITRAL REGURGITATION
    • MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE
    • AORTIC REGURGITATION
    • TRICUSPID REGURGITATION
    • PULMONIC STENOSIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    76: INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    77: PERICARDIAL DISEASES

    • ACUTE PERICARDITIS
    • CARDIAC EFFUSION AND TAMPONADE
    • PERICARDIAL CONSTRICTION
    • SPECIFIC FORMS OF PERICARDIAL DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    78: DISEASES OF THE AORTA

    • AORTIC ANEURYSMS
    • INTRAMURAL AORTIC HEMATOMA AND AORTIC DISSECTION
    • TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS
    • GIANT CELL ARTERITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    79: ATHEROSCLEROTIC PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE  

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

    80: OTHER PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASES

    • LIVEDO RETICULARIS
    • ATHEROMATOUS EMBOLIZATION
    • THROMBOANGIITIS OBLITERANS (BUERGER’S DISEASE)
    • VASCULAR DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE
    • ERYTHROMELALGIA
    • POPLITEAL ARTERY ENTRAPMENT SYNDROME
    • CYSTIC ADVENTITIAL DISEASE
    • FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA OF THE EXTREMITIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    81: PERIPHERAL VENOUS DISEASE

    • DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS
    • SUPERFICIAL THROMBOPHLEBITIS
    • POST-THROMBOTIC SYNDROME
    • VENOUS ULCERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    82: CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION  

    • POPULATION OF PATIENTS
    • THE CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION PROCEDURE
    • POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
    • TRANSPLANT VASCULOPATHY
    • OUTCOME OF TRANSPLANTATION
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION IX RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    83: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASE

    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH COUGH
    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH WHEEZING
    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH DYSPNEA
    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH HEMOPTYSIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    84: IMAGING IN PULMONARY DISEASE

    • IMAGING OF THE LUNGS, MEDIASTINUM, AND CHEST WALL
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    85: RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: MECHANISMS AND TESTING

    • RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    • ASSESSMENT OF PULMONARY VENTILATORY FUNCTION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    86: DISORDERS OF VENTILATORY CONTROL

    • HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    87: ASTHMA  

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    88: CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    89: CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    • LUNG DISEASE
    • GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE
    • OTHER ORGAN INVOLVEMENT
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    90: BRONCHIECTASIS, ATELECTASIS, CYSTS, AND LOCALIZED LUNG DISORDERS

    • BRONCHIECTASIS
    • ATELECTASIS
    • CONGENITAL CYSTIC DISEASES OF THE THORAX
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    91: ALVEOLAR FILLING DISORDERS

    • PULMONARY ALVEOLAR PROTEINOSIS
    • ACUTE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA
    • DIFFUSE ALVEOLAR HEMORRHAGE
    • BRONCHIOLOALVEOLAR CELL CARCINOMA
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    92: INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    • SPECIFIC TYPES OF INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    93: OCCUPATIONAL LUNG DISEASE

    • SPECIFIC OCCUPATIONAL LUNG DISORDERS
    • OCCUPATIONAL CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS
    • CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE
    • ASBESTOS-RELATED DISEASES
    • SILICOSIS AND OTHER PNEUMOCONIOSES
    • ACUTE FEBRILE SYNDROMES
    • OCCUPATIONAL LUNG CANCER
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    94: PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL INJURIES OF THE LUNG

    • SUBMERSION INCIDENTS: DROWNING
    • DISEASES OF HIGH ALTITUDE
    • DECOMPRESSION ILLNESS: DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS, BAROTRAUMA, AND ARTERIAL GAS EMBOLISM
    • SMOKE INHALATION
    • OXYGEN TOXICITY
    • LUNG INJURY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    95: SARCOIDOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    96: ACUTE BRONCHITIS AND TRACHEITIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    97: OVERVIEW OF PNEUMONIA

    • COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA
    • ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA
    • HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA, VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA, AND HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    98: PULMONARY EMBOLISM

    • THROMBOTIC PULMONARY EMBOLISM
    • NONTHROMBOTIC PULMONARY EMBOLISM
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    99: DISEASES OF THE DIAPHRAGM, CHEST WALL, PLEURA, AND MEDIASTINUM

    • DIAPHRAGM
    • DIAPHRAGMATIC WEAKNESS AND PARALYSIS
    • MISCELLANEOUS DIAPHRAGMATIC DISORDERS
    • CHEST WALL
    • KYPHOSCOLIOSIS
    • PECTUS EXCAVATUM
    • FLAIL CHEST
    • ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS
    • OBESITY
    • PLEURA
    • PLEURAL EFFUSION
    • MESOTHELIOMA
    • PNEUMOTHORAX
    • MEDIASTINUM
    • MEDIASTINAL MASSES
    • MEDIASTINITIS
    • PNEUMOMEDIASTINUM
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    100: OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    101: INTERVENTIONAL AND SURGICAL APPROACHES TO LUNG DISEASE  

    • BRONCHOSCOPY
    • SURGERY FOR BENIGN LUNG DISEASE
    • SURGERY FOR ADVANCED LUNG DISEASES: LUNG VOLUME REDUCTION SURGERY
    • ENDOSCOPIC MANAGEMENT OF EMPHYSEMA
    • LUNG TRANSPLANTATION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION X CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

    102: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT IN A CRITICAL CARE SETTING

    • THE INTENSIVIST-LED MULTIDISCIPLINARY TEAM
    • FLUID RESUSCITATION
    • SEDATION, ANALGESIA, AND SPONTANEOUS BREATHING TRIALS
    • LONG-TERM OUTCOMES FOR SURVIVORS
    • APPLYING EVIDENCE TO PREVENT COMPLICATIONS OF CRITICAL ILLNESS
    • PREDICTIONS, PREFERENCES, AND END-OF-LIFE CARE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    103: RESPIRATORY MONITORING IN CRITICAL CARE

    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS
    • PULSE OXIMETRY
    • CARBON DIOXIDE MONITORING: CAPNOMETRY AND TRANSCUTANEOUS CARBON DIOXIDE MEASUREMENT
    • ARTERIAL OXYGEN CONTENT AND SYSTEMIC OXYGEN DELIVERY
    • MEASURING VENTILATION: MINUTE VENTILATION AND ALVEOLAR VENTILATION
    • MEASURING CARBON DIOXIDE PRODUCTION
    • MEASURING RESPIRATORY COMPLIANCE
    • MEASURING RESPIRATORY DRIVE
    • MEASURING RESPIRATORY MUSCLE STRENGTH
    • MEASURING WORK OF BREATHING
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    104: ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE

    • ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE
    • SPECIFIC ACUTE RESPIRATORY FAILURE SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    105: MECHANICAL VENTILATION  

    • TYPES OF MECHANICAL VENTILATORS
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • SPECIFIC COMMON TREATMENT SCENARIOS
    • ADJUNCTS
    • DISCONTINUATION OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    106: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH SHOCK

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    107: CARDIOGENIC SHOCK

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    108: SHOCK SYNDROMES RELATED TO SEPSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    109: DISORDERS DUE TO HEAT AND COLD

    • TEMPERATURE REGULATION
    • HEAT ILLNESS
    • COLD INJURY
    • THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA AND HYPERTHERMIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    110: ACUTE POISONING

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    111: ELECTRIC INJURY

    • ELECTRIC CURRENT INJURY
    • LIGHTNING INJURY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    112: MEDICAL ASPECTS OF TRAUMA AND BURN CARE

    • MEDICAL ASPECTS OF TRAUMA
    • MEDICAL ASPECTS OF BURNS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    113: VENOMOUS SNAKE BITES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    114: VENOMS AND POISONS FROM MARINE ORGANISMS

    • VENOMOUS MARINE ORGANISMS
    • POISONOUS MARINE ORGANISMS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    115: RHABDOMYOLYSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XI RENAL AND GENITOURINARY DISEASES

    116: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH RENAL DISEASE

    • MAJOR RENAL SYNDROMES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    117: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE KIDNEYS

    • THE KIDNEY REGULATES EXTRACELLULAR FLUID VOLUME BY REGULATING ITS SODIUM CONTENT
    • THE KIDNEY REGULATES BODY FLUID OSMOLARITY BY REGULATING ITS WATER CONTENT
    • THE KIDNEY REGULATES PLASMA pH BY REGULATING HCO 3 CONTENT
    • THE KIDNEY REGULATES PLASMA POTASSIUM BY EXCRETION AND THE CONTROL OF EXTRACELLULAR PH
    • THE KIDNEY REGULATES PLASMA PO 4 AND CA 2+ BY EXCRETION AND BY SYNTHESIZING VITAMIN D 3
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    118: DISORDERS OF SODIUM AND WATER HOMEOSTASIS

    • SODIUM AND WATER HOMEOSTASIS
    • SODIUM BALANCE DISORDERS
    • WATER BALANCE DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    119: POTASSIUM DISORDERS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    120: ACID-BASE DISORDERS

    • METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
    • METABOLIC ALKALOSIS
    • RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS
    • RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    121: DISORDERS OF MAGNESIUM AND PHOSPHORUS

    • MAGNESIUM METABOLISM
    • PHOSPHORUS METABOLISM
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    122: ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    123: GLOMERULAR DISORDERS AND NEPHROTIC SYNDROMES

    • GLOMERULAR DISORDERS
    • THE NEPHROTIC SYNDROME
    • ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS AND THE NEPHRITIC SYNDROME
    • GLOMERULAR DISEASES ASSOCIATED WITH GENETIC DEFECTS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    124: TUBULOINTERSTITIAL DISEASES

    • TUBULOINTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS
    • ACUTE INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS
    • CHRONIC INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    125: OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    126: DIABETES AND THE KIDNEY

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    127: VASCULAR DISORDERS OF THE KIDNEY  

    • ARTERIES
    • ARTERIOLES AND MICROVASCULATURE
    • SYSTEMIC DISORDERS AFFECTING THE RENAL MICROVASCULATURE
    • RENAL VEINS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    128: NEPHROLITHIASIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    129: CYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES

    • AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    • AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    • NEPHRONOPHTHISIS
    • MEDULLARY CYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    • MEDULLARY SPONGE KIDNEY
    • OTHER INHERITED CYSTIC SYNDROMES
    • ACQUIRED CYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    130: HEREDITARY NEPHROPATHIES AND DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES OF THE URINARY TRACT

    • HEREDITARY NEPHROPATHIES
    • DEVELOPMENT OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT
    • ABNORMALITIES OF THE URINARY TRACT
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    131: BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA AND PROSTATITIS

    • BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA
    • PROSTATITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    132: CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    133: TREATMENT OF IRREVERSIBLE RENAL FAILURE

    • INDICATIONS FOR RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
    • HEMODIALYSIS
    • PERITONEAL DIALYSIS
    • RENAL TRANSPLANTATION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XII GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

    134: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE

    • GENERAL APPROACH TO PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • ABDOMINAL PAIN
    • GAS AND BLOATING
    • INVOLUNTARY WEIGHT LOSS
    • NAUSEA AND VOMITING
    • OTHER GASTROINTESTINAL COMPLAINTS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    135: DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING PROCEDURES IN GASTROENTEROLOGY

    • CONVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY
    • FLUOROSCOPIC PROCEDURES
    • ULTRASONOGRAPHY
    • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
    • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
    • INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES
    • NUCLEAR MEDICINE (RADIONUCLIDE SCINTIGRAPHY)
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    136: GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY

    • IMPORTANCE AND USE OF ENDOSCOPY
    • INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES (TABLE 136-1)
    • COMPLICATIONS AND PRE-ENDOSCOPY PREPARATION
    • SPECIFIC INDICATIONS
    • PANCREATOBILIARY ENDOSCOPY
    • EVOLVING TECHNIQUES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    137: GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE AND OCCULT GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    • GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE
    • OBSCURE AND OCCULT GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    138: DISORDERS OF GASTROINTESTINAL MOTILITY

    • DISEASES OF SLOW TRANSIT THROUGH THE STOMACH AND SMALL BOWEL
    • DISEASES OF RAPID TRANSIT THROUGH STOMACH AND SMALL BOWEL
    • COLONIC MOTILITY DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    139: FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS: IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME, DYSPEPSIA, AND FUNCTIONAL CHEST PAIN OF PRESUMED ESOPHAGEAL ORIGIN

    • FUNCTIONAL GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS
    • IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME
    • FUNCTIONAL DYSPEPSIA
    • FUNCTIONAL CHEST PAIN OF PRESUMED ESOPHAGEAL ORIGIN
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    140: DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS

    • NORMAL ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    • GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE
    • ESOPHAGITIS
    • ESOPHAGEAL MOTOR DISORDERS
    • STRUCTURAL ABNORMALITIES
    • THE ESOPHAGUS IN SYSTEMIC DISEASES
    • ESOPHAGEAL INFECTIONS
    • MISCELLANENOUS ESOPHAGEAL CONDITIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    141: ACID PEPTIC DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    142: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH DIARRHEA AND MALABSORPTION

    • ACUTE DIARRHEA
    • CHRONIC DIARRHEA
    • WATERY DIARRHEA
    • TRUE SECRETORY DIARRHEAS
    • INFLAMMATORY DIARRHEAS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    143: INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    144: INFLAMMATORY AND ANATOMIC DISEASES OF THE INTESTINE, PERITONEUM, MESENTERY, AND OMENTUM

    • APPENDICITIS
    • DIVERTICULITIS OF THE COLON
    • OTHER INFLAMMATORY CONDITIONS
    • PERITONEAL DISORDERS
    • MISCELLANEOUS DISEASE OF THE MESENTERY AND OMENTUM
    • ANATOMIC AND MECHANICAL DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    145: VASCULAR DISEASES OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

    • INTESTINAL ISCHEMIA
    • VASCULITIS
    • HEMORRHAGIC VASCULAR DISORDERS
    • HEPATIC AND SPLENIC VASCULAR DISEASE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    146: PANCREATITIS

    • ACUTE PANCREATITIS
    • CHRONIC PANCREATITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    147: DISEASES OF THE RECTUM AND ANUS

    • SPECIFIC ANORECTAL CONDITIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XIII DISEASES OF THE LIVER, GALLBLADDER, AND BILE DUCTS

    148: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH LIVER DISEASE

    • HISTORY
    • RISK FACTORS FOR LIVER DISEASE
    • ASSESSING DURATION OF LIVER DISEASE
    • REVIEW OF OTHER ORGAN SYSTEMS
    • FAMILY HISTORY
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES (TABLE 148-1)
    • SUGGESTED READING

    149: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH JAUNDICE OR ABNORMAL LIVER TESTS

    • JAUNDICE
    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
    • DISORDERS OF BILIRUBIN METABOLISM
    • LIVER AND BILIARY TRACT DISEASE
    • DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS FOR THE EVALUATION OF LIVER DISEASE
    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH JAUNDICE OR ABNORMAL LIVER TESTS
    • APPROACH TO THE ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENT WITH ABNORMAL LIVER TESTS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    150: ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS

    • INTRODUCTION
    • GENERAL FEATURES OF ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS
    • HEPATITIS A
    • ACUTE HEPATITIS B
    • ACUTE HEPATITIS C
    • ACUTE HEPATITIS D OR DELTA
    • ACUTE HEPATITIS E
    • OTHER TYPES OF ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    151: CHRONIC VIRAL AND AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

    • CHRONIC HEPATITIS B
    • CHRONIC HEPATITIS C
    • CHRONIC HEPATITIS D
    • CHRONIC HEPATITIS E
    • AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS
    • CRYPTOGENIC CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    152: TOXIN-AND DRUG-INDUCED LIVER DISEASE

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    153: INHERITED AND METABOLIC DISORDERS OF THE LIVER

    • INHERITED LIVER DISEASES
    • METABOLIC LIVER DISEASES
    • LIVER DISEASE IN PREGNANCY
    • TOTAL PARENTERAL NUTRITION-INDUCED LIVER DISEASE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    154: BACTERIAL, PARASITIC, FUNGAL, AND GRANULOMATOUS LIVER DISEASES

    • INFECTIONS OF THE LIVER
    • HEPATOSPLENIC CANDIDIASIS
    • PARASITIC, PROTOZOAL, AND HELMINTHIC INFECTIONS OF THE LIVER
    • HELMINTH INFECTIONS
    • GRANULOMATOUS DISEASES OF THE LIVER
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    155: ALCOHOLIC AND NONALCOHOLIC STEATOHEPATITIS

    • ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE
    • NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    156: CIRRHOSIS AND ITS SEQUELAE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    157: HEPATIC FAILURE AND LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    • INDICATIONS AND SELECTION CRITERIA FOR LIVER TRANSPLANTATION
    • THE TRANSPLANTATION PROCEDURE
    • POST-TRANSPLANTATION MANAGEMENT
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    158: DISEASES OF THE GALLBLADDER AND BILE DUCTS

    • THE BILIARY SYSTEM
    • CHOLESTASIS
    • BILIARY TRACT DISEASES
    • GALLSTONE DISEASE
    • ACUTE ACALCULOUS CHOLECYSTITIS
    • CHRONIC ACALCULOUS CHOLECYSTITIS
    • GALLBLADDER CANCER
    • DISORDERS OF THE AMPULLA OF VATER
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XIV HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES

    159: HEMATOPOIESIS AND HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS

    • HEMATOPOIETIC STEM AND PROGENITOR CELLS
    • HEMATOPOIETIC CELL EXPANSION— HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTORS
    • CLINICAL USES OF HEMATOPOIETIC CELLS AND GROWTH FACTORS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    160: THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD SMEAR

    • REASONS FOR PERFORMING A BLOOD SMEAR
    • THE BLOOD SMEAR IN THE DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF ANEMIA
    • ASSESSMENT OF THROMBOCYTOPENIA, THROMBOCYTOSIS, AND PLATELET MORPHOLOGY
    • LEUKOCYTOSIS AND LEUKOPENIA (CHAPTER 170)
    • LEUKEMIAS AND LYMPHOMAS
    • THE INCIDENTAL DETECTION OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT ABNORMALITIES
    • CONCLUSION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    161: APPROACH TO THE ANEMIAS

    • ANEMIA DUE TO BLOOD LOSS
    • ANEMIAS DUE TO DECREASED RED CELL PRODUCTION
    • HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS
    • APPROACH TO THE TREATMENT OF ANEMIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    162: MICROCYTIC AND HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIAS

    • IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA
    • ANEMIA OF CHRONIC DISEASE AND INFLAMMATION
    • SIDEROBLASTIC ANEMIAS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    163: AUTOIMMUNE AND INTRAVASCULAR HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS

    • AUTOIMMUNE HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS
    • OTHER CAUSES OF INTRAVASCULAR HEMOLYSIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    164: HEMOLYTIC ANEMIAS: RED CELL MEMBRANE AND METABOLIC DEFECTS

    • THE ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE
    • DISORDERS OF THE ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE
    • ERYTHROCYTE METABOLISM
    • DISORDERS OF ERYTHROCYTE METABOLISM
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    165: THE THALASSEMIAS

    • UNSTABLE HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    166: SICKLE CELL DISEASE AND OTHER HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES

    • SICKLE CELL DISEASE
    • OTHER HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    167: MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIAS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    168: APLASTIC ANEMIA AND RELATED BONE MARROW FAILURE STATES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    169: POLYCYTHEMIAS, ESSENTIAL THROMBOCYTHEMIA, AND PRIMARY MYELOFIBROSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    170: LEUKOCYTOSIS AND LEUKOPENIA

    • NORMAL NEUTROPHIL DYNAMICS
    • NEUTROPHILIA
    • NEUTROPENIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    171: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH LYMPHADENOPATHY AND SPLENOMEGALY

    • LYMPHADENOPATHY
    • SPLENOMEGALY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    172: DISORDERS OF PHAGOCYTE FUNCTION

    • NEUTROPHILS
    • DEFECTS IN LEUKOCYTE ADHESION
    • DEFECTS IN NEUTROPHILIC CHEMOTAXIS
    • DISORDERS OF NEUTROPHILIC DEGRANULATION
    • DISORDERS OF OXYGEN-DEPENDENT BACTERIAL KILLING
    • MACROPHAGE-RELATED ABNORMALITIES
    • ASSESSING PHAGOCYTE FUNCTION: MAKING THE DIAGNOSIS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    173: EOSINOPHILIC SYNDROMES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    174: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH BLEEDING AND THROMBOSIS

    • MECHANISMS OF HEMOSTASIS AND THROMBOSIS
    • EVALUATION OF THE PATIENT WITH A POSSIBLE BLEEDING DISORDER
    • EVALUATION OF THE ASYMPTOMATIC PATIENT WITH ABNORMAL COAGULATION TESTS
    • EVALUATION OF THE PREOPERATIVE PATIENT
    • EVALUATION OF THE PATIENT WITH A POSSIBLE HYPERCOAGULABLE STATE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    175: THROMBOCYTOPENIA

    • GENERAL MECHANISMS OF THROMBOCYTOPENIAS
    • PLATELET TRANSFUSIONS
    • SPECIFIC CAUSES OF THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    176: VON WILLEBRAND DISEASE AND HEMORRHAGIC ABNORMALITIES OF PLATELET AND VASCULAR FUNCTION

    • VON WILLEBRAND DISEASE
    • ACQUIRED VON WILLEBRAND SYNDROME
    • BLEEDING DUE TO QUALITATIVE PLATELET DISORDERS
    • VASCULAR HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    177: HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: COAGULATION FACTOR DEFICIENCIES

    • COAGULATION DEFICIENCIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    178: HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS: DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION, LIVER FAILURE, AND VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY

    • DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION
    • LIVER FAILURE
    • VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    179: THROMBOTIC DISORDERS: HYPERCOAGULABLE STATES

    • PRIMARY HYPERCOAGULABLE STATES
    • SECONDARY HYPERCOAGULABLE STATES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    180: TRANSFUSION MEDICINE

    • DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSFUSION MEDICINE
    • THE TRANSFUSION MEDICINE SPECIALIST
    • TRANSFUSION
    • BLOOD SAFETY
    • EMERGING ISSUES AND EVOLVING TECHNOLOGIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    181: HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    • ALLOGENEIC AND SYNGENEIC TRANSPLANTATION
    • AUTOLOGOUS BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION
    • INDICATIONS FOR TRANSPLANTATION
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XV ONCOLOGY

    182: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH CANCER

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    183: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CANCER

    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    184: CANCER GENETICS

    • CANCER IS A GENETIC DISEASE
    • HEREDITARY CANCER SYNDROMES
    • DIAGNOSIS OF FAMILIAL CANCER SYNDROMES
    • USE OF GENETICS IN CANCER THERAPY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    185: BIOLOGY OF CANCER

    • GENETIC CANCER BIOLOGY
    • DISTINCTIVE CANCER BIOLOGY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    186: ENDOCRINE MANIFESTATIONS OF TUMORS: “ECTOPIC” HORMONE PRODUCTION

    • HUMORAL HYPERCALCEMIA OF MALIGNANCY
    • ECTOPIC ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE SECRETION
    • HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN PRODUCTION
    • HYPOGLYCEMIA ASSOCIATED WITH CANCER
    • SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE SECRETION
    • RARE ECTOPIC HORMONE SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    187: PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES AND OTHER NON-NEOPLASTIC EFFECTS OF CANCER

    • NEUROLOGIC PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES
    • DERMATOLOGIC PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES
    • RHEUMATOLOGIC PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES
    • RENAL PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES
    • HEPATOPATHY
    • FEVER AND CACHEXIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    188: MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    189: THE ACUTE LEUKEMIAS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    190: THE CHRONIC LEUKEMIAS

    • CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA
    • CHRONIC MYELOMONOCYTIC LEUKEMIA
    • HAIRY CELL LEUKEMIA
    • CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    191: NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMAS

    • SPECIFIC TYPES OF NON-HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMAS
    • SPECIAL CLINICAL SITUATIONS
    • DISEASES SOMETIMES CONFUSED WITH LYMPHOMA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    192: HODGKIN’S LYMPHOMA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    193: PLASMA CELL DISORDERS

    • MONOCLONAL GAMMOPATHY OF UNDETERMINED SIGNIFICANCE
    • BICLONAL GAMMOPATHIES
    • LIGHT CHAIN MGUS AND IDIOPATHIC BENCE JONES PROTEINURIA
    • MULTIPLE MYELOMA
    • VARIANT FORMS OF MULTIPLE MYELOMA
    • WALDENSTRÖM’S MACROGLOBULINEMIA (PRIMARY MACROGLOBULINEMIA)
    • HYPERVISCOSITY SYNDROME
    • HEAVY CHAIN DISEASES
    • CRYOGLOBULINEMIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    194: AMYLOIDOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    195: TUMORS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION AND HYPOTENSION

    • INTRACRANIAL TUMORS
    • SPECIFIC TYPES OF BRAIN TUMORS
    • INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION AND HYPOTENSION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

    196: HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    197: LUNG CANCER AND OTHER PULMONARY NEOPLASMS

    • BRONCHOGENIC LUNG CANCER
    • OTHER PULMONARY NEOPLASMS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    198: NEOPLASMS OF THE ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH

    • NEOPLASMS OF THE ESOPHAGUS
    • NEOPLASMS OF THE STOMACH
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    199: NEOPLASMS OF THE SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE

    • NEOPLASMS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE
    • NEOPLASMS OF THE LARGE INTESTINE
    • CONCLUSION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    200: PANCREATIC CANCER

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    201: PANCREATIC ENDOCRINE TUMORS

    • FUNCTIONAL PANCREATIC ENDOCRINE TUMOR SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    202: LIVER AND BILIARY TRACT TUMORS

    • EVALUATION OF MASS LESIONS OF THE LIVER
    • COMMON BENIGN TUMORS OF THE LIVER
    • PRIMARY MALIGNANT TUMORS OF THE LIVER AND BILIARY TRACT
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    203: TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY, BLADDER, URETERS, AND RENAL PELVIS

    • RENAL CELL CARCINOMA
    • BLADDER CANCER
    • CANCERS OF THE RENAL PELVIS AND URETERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    204: BREAST CANCER AND BENIGN BREAST DISORDERS

    • BREAST CANCER
    • BENIGN BREAST LESIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    205: GYNECOLOGIC CANCERS

    • CERVICAL CANCER
    • ENDOMETRIAL CANCER
    • EPITHELIAL OVARIAN CANCER
    • NONEPITHELIAL OVARIAN MALIGNANCIES
    • VULVAR CANCER
    • VAGINAL CANCER
    • UTERINE FIBROIDS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    206: TESTICULAR CANCER

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    207: PROSTATE CANCER

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    208: PRIMARY AND METASTATIC MALIGNANT BONE LESIONS

    • PRIMARY BONE TUMORS
    • MAJOR PRIMARY MALIGNANT BONE TUMORS
    • METASTATIC TUMORS TO BONE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    209: SARCOMAS OF SOFT TISSUE AND BONE, AND OTHER NEOPLASMS OF CONNECTIVE TISSUES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    210: MELANOMA AND NONMELANOMA SKIN CANCERS

    • MELANOMA
    • BASAL AND SQUAMOUS CELL SKIN CANCER
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    211: CANCER OF UNKNOWN PRIMARY ORIGIN

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XVI METABOLIC DISEASES

    212: APPROACH TO INBORN ERRORS OF METABOLISM

    • ERRORS IN PROTEINS THAT CAUSE DISEASES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    213: DISORDERS OF LIPID METABOLISM

    • COMPONENTS OF LIPID TRANSPORT
    • EXOGENOUS LIPID METABOLISM
    • ENDOGENOUS LIPID METABOLISM
    • REVERSE CHOLESTEROL TRANSPORT AND HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM
    • LIPID-ACTIVATED NUCLEAR RECEPTORS AND LIPID METABOLISM
    • IMPORTANT CLINICAL DISORDERS OF LIPID METABOLISM
    • EVALUATION AND THERAPY OF LIPID DISORDERS
    • PRIMARY PREVENTION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    214: GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    215: THE LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISEASES

    • GAUCHER’ S DISEASE
    • FABRY’ S DISEASE
    • OTHER LYSOSOMAL DISORDERS FREQUENTLY ENCOUNTERED IN ADULTS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    216: HOMOCYSTINURIA AND HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    217: THE PORPHYRIAS

    • THE MOST COMMON PORPHYRIAS
    • LESS COMMON PORPHYRIAS
    • LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF PORPHYRIAS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    218: WILSON’ S DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    219: IRON OVERLOAD (HEMOCHROMATOSIS)

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XVII NUTRITIONAL DISEASES

    220: NUTRITION’ S INTERFACE WITH HEALTH AND DISEASE

    • OLD AND NEW PARADIGMS IN THE SCIENCE OF NUTRITION
    • NUTRITION’S INFLUENCE ON MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY
    • TRANSLATING EVIDENCE INTO DIETARY CHANGE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS
    • SUGGESTED WEBSITES

    221: NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    • GOALS AND IMPORTANCE OF NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT
    • CLINICAL NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT
    • NUTRITIONAL THERAPY AND ITS ASSESSMENT
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    222: PROTEIN-ENERGY MALNUTRITION

    • METABOLIC RESPONSE TO STARVATION
    • UNDERNUTRITION-INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN TISSUE MASS AND FUNCTION
    • DEATH FROM STARVATION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    223: ENTERAL NUTRITION

    • PHYSIOLOGIC BENEFIT OF ENTERAL NUTRITION
    • CONSEQUENCES OF NOT PROVIDING ENTERAL NUTRITION
    • INITIATING ENTERAL FEEDING
    • COMPLICATIONS OF ENTERAL FEEDING
    • CONCLUSION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    224: PARENTERAL NUTRITION

    • NUTRITIONAL SCREENING AND INDICATIONS
    • ORDERING PARENTERAL NUTRITION
    • PARENTERAL NUTRITION DELIVERY
    • METABOLIC COMPLICATIONS AND MONITORING OF PARENTERAL NUTRITION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    225: VITAMINS, TRACE MINERALS, AND OTHER MICRONUTRIENTS

    • MICRONUTRIENTS IN NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE
    • TYPES AND FUNCTION OF MICRONUTRIENTS
    • CONDITIONS THAT INCREASE REQUIRED DIETARY INTAKE
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGIC AND PHARMACOLOGIC FACTORS
    • ADVANCES IN NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    226: EATING DISORDERS

    • ANOREXIA NERVOSA
    • BULIMIA NERVOSA
    • BINGE-EATING DISORDER
    • EATING DISORDER NOT OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    227: OBESITY  

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XVIII ENDOCRINE DISEASES

    228: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH ENDOCRINE DISEASE

    • COMMON SYMPTOMS OF ENDOCRINOLOGIC DISEASE
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION
    • GENETIC EVALUATION
    • EVALUATION OF THE RESPONSE OF AN ENDOCRINE DISEASE TO TREATMENT
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    229: PRINCIPLES OF ENDOCRINOLOGY

    • REGULATION OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
    • HORMONE TRANSPORT IN THE GENERAL CIRCULATION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    230: NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY AND THE NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    • NEUROENDOCRINE REGULATION
    • NEUROENDOCRINE DISEASE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    231: ANTERIOR PITUITARY  

    • ANATOMY AND EMBRYOLOGY
    • RADIOLOGY OF THE PITUITARY
    • REGULATION OF THE PITUITARY AXIS
    • HYPOPITUITARISM
    • PITUITARY TUMORS
    • GROWTH HORMONE
    • GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY
    • GROWTH HORMONE EXCESS: ACROMEGALY AND GIGANTISM
    • PROLACTIN
    • PROLACTIN DEFICIENCY
    • HYPERPROLACTINEMIA
    • ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
    • ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE DEFICIENCY: SECONDARY HYPOCORTISOLISM
    • CUSHING’ S DISEASE
    • NELSON’ S SYNDROME
    • GONADOTROPINS (FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE)
    • HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM
    • FOLLICLE-STIMULATING HORMONE-AND LUTEINIZING HORMONE-PRODUCING TUMORS
    • THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE
    • CENTRAL HYPOTHYROIDISM
    • THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE-SECRETING TUMORS
    • CLINICALLY NONFUNCTIONING PITUITARY TUMORS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    232: POSTERIOR PITUITARY

    • ANATOMY AND HORMONE SYNTHESIS
    • SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE SECRETION
    • DIABETES INSIPIDUS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    233: THYROID

    • PHYSIOLOGY
    • HYPOTHYROIDISM
    • THYROTOXICOSIS
    • THYROIDITIS
    • GOITER
    • THYROID NODULES
    • THYROID CANCER
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    234: ADRENAL CORTEX

    • FUNCTION
    • DISORDERS OF ADRENAL FUNCTION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    235: ADRENAL MEDULLA, CATECHOLAMINES, AND PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA

    • ADRENAL MEDULLA AND CATECHOLAMINES
    • PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA AND PARAGANGLIOMA
    • MALIGNANT PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA AND PARAGANGLIOMA
    • PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA IN PREGNANCY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    236: TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS  

    • TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS
    • ACUTE METABOLIC COMPLICATIONS
    • CHRONIC DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

    237: TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    • ACUTE METABOLIC COMPLICATIONS
    • HYPOGLYCEMIA
    • CHRONIC DIABETIC COMPLICATIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    238: HYPOGLYCEMIA AND PANCREATIC ISLET CELL DISORDERS

    • HYPOGLYCEMIA
    • ISLET CELL TUMORS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    239: POLYGLANDULAR DISORDERS

    • NEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES
    • AUTOIMMUNE SYNDROMES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    240: CARCINOID SYNDROME

    • THE NEOPLASMS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    241: DISORDERS OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT

    • DEFECTS OF SEX DIFFERENTIATION
    • MATERNAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING THE FETUS
    • HORMONE INSENSITIVITY SYNDROMES AND OTHER HORMONE DEFICIENCIES
    • OTHER GENETIC CONDITIONS
    • MANAGEMENT OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISORDERS OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT: GENDER ROLE AND IDENTITY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    242: THE TESTIS AND MALE SEXUAL FUNCTION

    • PHYSIOLOGY
    • MALE HYPOGONADISM
    • MALE INFERTILITY
    • SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    243: OVARIES AND DEVELOPMENT

    • ABERRATIONS IN PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    244: REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND INFERTILITY

    • THE NORMAL MENSTRUAL CYCLE
    • CYCLIC CHANGES IN TARGET ORGANS
    • ABNORMALITIES OF THE REPRODUCTIVE YEARS
    • CHRONIC ANOVULATION
    • SEXUAL FUNCTION AND DYSFUNCTION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XIX WOMEN’S HEALTH

    245: APPROACH TO WOMEN’S HEALTH

    • LIFESPAN GROUPS
    • HEALTH DISPARITIES AMONG WOMEN
    • COMMON CAUSES OF MORTALITY IN WOMEN
    • COMMON CAUSES OF MORBIDITY IN WOMEN
    • REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ISSUES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    246: CONTRACEPTION

    • CONTRACEPTIVE USE AND EFFECTIVENESS
    • TYPES OF CONTRACEPTIVES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    247: COMMON MEDICAL PROBLEMS IN PREGNANCY

    • INTRODUCTION
    • BASIC PRINCIPLES
    • HYPERTENSIVE DISORDERS OF PREGNANCY
    • PREECLAMPSIA
    • DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS, PULMONARY EMBOLISM, AND THROMBOPHILIA (CHAPTERS 81, 98, AND 179)
    • ASTHMA (CHAPTER 87)
    • DIABETES (CHAPTERS 236 AND 237)
    • SUMMARY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    248: MENOPAUSE

    • MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOMS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    249: INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XX DISEASES OF BONE AND MINERAL METABOLISM

    250: MINERAL AND BONE HOMEOSTASIS

    • HOMEOSTATIC SYSTEMS FOR CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM, AND PHOSPHATE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    251: OSTEOPOROSIS

    • GLUCOCORTICOID-INDUCED OSTEOPOROSIS
    • OSTEOPOROSIS IN MEN
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    252: OSTEOMALACIA AND RICKETS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    253: THE PARATHYROID GLANDS, HYPERCALCEMIA, AND HYPOCALCEMIA

    • CALCIUM AND CALCIUM METABOLISM
    • HYPERCALCEMIA
    • HYPOCALCEMIA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    254: MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND CALCITONIN

    • MEDULLARY THYROID CARCINOMA
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    255: PAGET’S DISEASE OF BONE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    256: OSTEONECROSIS, OSTEOSCLEROSIS/HYPEROSTOSIS, AND OTHER DISORDERS OF BONE

    • OSTEONECROSIS
    • OSTEOSCLEROSIS/HYPEROSTOSIS
    • OSTEOSCLEROSIS WITH HYPEROSTOSIS
    • FOCAL OSTEOSCLEROSIS/HYPEROSTOSIS
    • OTHER DISORDERS OF BONE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXI DISEASES OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    257: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH ALLERGIC OR IMMUNOLOGIC DISEASE

    • ALLERGIC DISEASE
    • IMMUNOLOGIC DISEASE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    258: PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES

    • DEFECTS IN THE INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM: COMPLEMENT AND PHAGOCYTE DEFICIENCIES
    • DEFICIENCIES OF T-CELL IMMUNITY
    • B-CELL IMMUNODEFICIENCIES
    • DISEASES OF IMMUNE DYSREGULATION AND IMMUNODEFICIENCY
    • COMMON VARIABLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY
    • IMMUNOGLOBULIN A DEFICIENCY
    • IMMUNOGLOBULIN G SUBCLASS DEFICIENCIES AND SELECTIVE ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    259: ALLERGIC RHINITIS AND SINUSITIS  

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

    260: URTICARIA AND ANGIOEDEMA

    • URTICARIA
    • HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA AND RELATED DISEASES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    261: SYSTEMIC ANAPHYLAXIS, FOOD ALLERGY, AND INSECT STING ALLERGY

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    262: DRUG ALLERGY

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    263: MASTOCYTOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXII RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    264: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH RHEUMATIC DISEASE

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    265: LABORATORY TESTING IN THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    • MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASE
    • LABORATORY EVALUATION OF SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    266: IMAGING STUDIES IN THE RHEUMATIC DISEASES

    • RADIOGRAPHY
    • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
    • ULTRASOUND
    • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
    • ARTHROGRAPHY
    • SCINTIGRAPHY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    267: CONNECTIVE TISSUE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    • CONNECTIVE TISSUE PROTEINS AND MACROMOLECULES
    • SPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE TISSUE STRUCTURES
    • CONNECTIVE TISSUE DEGRADATION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    268: INHERITED DISEASES OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE

    • MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSES
    • MARFAN SYNDROME
    • EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROMES
    • OSTEOGENESIS IMPERFECTA SYNDROMES
    • PSEUDOXANTHOMA ELASTICUM
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    269: THE SYSTEMIC AUTOINFLAMMATORY DISEASES

    • HEREDITARY RECURRENT FEVER SYNDROMES
    • OTHER INHERITED SYSTEMIC AUTOINFLAMMATORY DISEASES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    270: OSTEOARTHRITIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    271: BURSITIS, TENDINITIS, AND OTHER PERIARTICULAR DISORDERS AND SPORTS MEDICINE

    • SPORTS MEDICINE INJURIES
    • DISORDERS OF THE SHOULDER REGION
    • DISORDERS OF THE ELBOW REGION
    • DISORDERS OF THE WRIST AND HAND
    • DISORDERS OF THE HIP REGION
    • DISORDERS OF THE KNEE REGION
    • DISORDERS OF THE ANKLE AND FOOT REGION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    272: RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    273: THE SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES

    • COMMON FEATURES OF THE SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES
    • GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY
    • CLINICAL SUBSETS OF THE SPONDYLOARTHROPATHIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    274: SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    275: SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS (SCLERODERMA)

    • NEPHROGENIC SYSTEMIC FIBROSIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    276: SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    277: POLYMYOSITIS AND DERMATOMYOSITIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    278: THE SYSTEMIC VASCULITIDES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    279: POLYMYALGIA RHEUMATICA AND TEMPORAL ARTERITIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    280: INFECTIONS OF BURSAE, JOINTS, AND BONES

    • INFECTION OF BURSAE
    • INFECTION OF JOINTS
    • OSTEOMYELITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    281: CRYSTAL DEPOSITION DISEASES

    • GOUT AND HYPERURICEMIA
    • CPPD DEPOSITION DISEASE
    • APATITE-ASSOCIATED (BASIC CALCIUM PHOSPHATE) ARTHROPATHY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    282: FIBROMYALGIA AND CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME

    • FIBROMYALGIA
    • CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
    • MYOFASCIAL PAIN
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    283: SYSTEMIC DISEASES IN WHICH ARTHRITIS IS A FEATURE

    • AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS
    • PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS
    • WHIPPLE’S DISEASE
    • GLUTEN-SENSITIVE ENTEROPATHY (CELIAC DISEASE)
    • PANCREATIC-ARTHRITIS SYNDROME
    • HEMOPHILIA
    • HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES
    • HYPOGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA
    • DIABETES MELLITUS
    • THYROID DISORDERS
    • PARATHYROID DISORDERS
    • ACROMEGALY
    • HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA
    • PAGET’S DISEASE
    • HYPERTROPHIC OSTEOARTHROPATHY
    • LEUKEMIA AND LYMPHOMA
    • CARCINOMATOUS POLYARTHRITIS
    • PALMAR FASCIITIS AND ARTHRITIS SYNDROME
    • HEMOCHROMATOSIS
    • MULTICENTRIC RETICULOHISTIOCYTOSIS
    • SARCOIDOSIS
    • ALKAPTONURIA (OCHRONOSIS)
    • FABRY’ S DISEASE
    • RELAPSING POLYCHONDRITIS
    • CYSTIC FIBROSIS
    • PIGMENTED VILLONODULAR SYNOVITIS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    284: IDIOPATHIC MULTIFOCAL FIBROSCLEROSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    285: SURGICAL TREATMENT OF JOINT DISEASE  

    • PREOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • ANESTHESIA IN THE ORTHOPEDIC PATIENT
    • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT
    • ORTHOPEDIC PROCEDURES
    • ORTHOPEDIC PROCEDURES ON OTHER JOINTS
    • MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN PATIENTS WITH ARTHRITIS UNDERGOING SURGERY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXIII INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    286: INTRODUCTION TO MICROBIAL DISEASE: HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    287: PRINCIPLES OF ANTI-INFECTIVE THERAPY

    • SELECTING ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY TARGETING THE PATHOGEN
    • SELECTING ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY APPROPRIATE TO THE INFECTION AND PATIENT
    • ANTIMICROBIAL COMBINATIONS
    • CONSIDERATIONS IN ANTIMICROBIAL ADMINISTRATION
    • MONITORING ANTIMICROBIAL CONCENTRATIONS
    • ADMINISTRATIVE ASPECTS OF ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    288: APPROACH TO FEVER OR SUSPECTED INFECTION IN THE NORMAL HOST

    • PATHOBIOLOGY OF INFECTION AND FEVER
    • APPROACH TO FEBRILE ILLNESS IN OUTPATIENTS AND INPATIENTS
    • SYNDROMIC APPROACH: FEVER AND RASH
    • SYNDROMIC APPROACH: FEVER AND MUSCULOSKELETAL COMPLAINTS
    • SYNDROMIC APPROACH: FEVER AND LYMPHADENOPATHY OR HEPATOSPLENOMEGALY
    • APPROACH TO FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN
    • INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF SUSPECTED INFECTION IN THE AMBULATORY SETTING
    • INITIAL MANAGEMENT OF SUSPECTED NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION
    • CONCLUSION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    289: APPROACH TO FEVER AND SUSPECTED INFECTION IN THE COMPROMISED HOST

    • APPROACH TO THE PATIENT
    • FEVER DURING NEUTROPENIA: CONSIDERATIONS AND DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
    • FEVER DURING NEUTROPENIA: MANAGEMENT
    • CUTANEOUS SYNDROMES
    • RESPIRATORY SYNDROMES
    • GASTROINTESTINAL SYNDROMES
    • NEUROLOGIC SYNDROMES
    • CONCLUSION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

    290: PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS

    • IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS
    • RESERVOIRS AND TRANSMISSION OF HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS
    • ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT INFECTIONS
    • GENERAL STRATEGIES EFFECTIVE IN PREVENTING SPREAD OF RESISTANCE IN HOSPITALS
    • CATEGORIES OF HEALTH CARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS
    • INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS
    • OCCUPATIONAL AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    291: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH SUSPECTED ENTERIC INFECTION

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    292: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    293: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH A SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASE

    • SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES
    • SYNDROMES
    • TOWARD A COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    294: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT BEFORE AND AFTER TRAVEL

    • PRETRAVEL HEALTH CARE AND RISK ASSESSMENT
    • PREVENTION AND RISK REDUCTION
    • POST-TRAVEL CARE
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    295: ANTIBACTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY

    • CHOICE OF ANTIBIOTIC, ANTIBIOTIC DOSE, AND SCHEDULE TO OPTIMIZE CLINICAL OUTCOME
    • CULTURE AND GRAM STAIN
    • SUSCEPTIBILITY
    • DETERMINING THE “CORRECT” DRUG DOSE
    • EMERGENCE OF RESISTANCE
    • SUPPRESSING THE EMERGENCE OF RESISTANCE
    • MECHANISM OF ACTION
    • MECHANISMS OF RESISTANCE
    • EFFECTS OF PHARMACOKINETIC CHANGES
    • DRUG CLASSES AND THEIR PROPERTIES
    • TOXICITIES
    • DURATION OF THERAPY
    • FAILURE OF ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    296: STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTIONS

    • THE PATHOGEN
    • STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    • COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    297: STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    298: NONPNEUMOCOCCAL STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS, RHEUMATIC FEVER

    • THE PATHOGENS
    • STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES (GROUP A STREPTOCOCCUS)
    • STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE (GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS)
    • STREPTOCOCCUS DYSGALACTIAE SUBSPECIES EQUISIMILIS (HUMAN GROUP C AND G STREPTOCOCCI)
    • VIRIDANS GROUP STREPTOCOCCI
    • ZOONOTIC STREPTROCOCCI
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    299: ENTEROCOCCAL INFECTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    300: DIPHTHERIA AND OTHER CORYNEBACTERIA INFECTIONS

    • DIPHTHERIA
    • OTHER CORYNEBACTERIUM SPECIES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    301: LISTERIOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    302: ANTHRAX

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    303: ERYSIPELOTHRIX INFECTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    304: CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS

    • CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE INFECTION
    • NECROTIZING CLOSTRIDIAL TISSUE INFECTION
    • NEUROTOXIC CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS
    • OTHER CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    305: DISEASES CAUSED BY NON-SPORE-FORMING ANAEROBIC BACTERIA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    306: NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    307: NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE INFECTIONS

    • CLINICAL SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    308: HAEMOPHILUS AND MORAXELLA INFECTIONS

    • HAEMOPHILUS INFECTIONS
    • MORAXELLA INFECTIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    309: CHANCROID

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    310: CHOLERA AND OTHER VIBRIO INFECTIONS

    • CHOLERA
    • OTHER VIBRIO INFECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    311: CAMPYLOBACTER INFECTIONS

    • OTHER CAMPYLOBACTER SPECIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    312: ESCHERICHIA COLI ENTERIC INFECTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    313: INFECTIONS DUE TO OTHER MEMBERS OF THE ENTEROBACTERIACEAE, INCLUDING MANAGEMENT OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT STRAINS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    314: PSEUDOMONAS AND RELATED GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLARY INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    315: DISEASES CAUSED BY ACINETOBACTER AND STENOTROPHOMONAS SPECIES

    • ACINETOBACTER SPECIES
    • STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    316: SALMONELLA INFECTIONS (INCLUDING TYPHOID FEVER)

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    317: SHIGELLOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    318: BRUCELLOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    319: TULAREMIA AND OTHER FRANCISELLA INFECTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    320: PLAGUE AND OTHER YERSINIA INFECTIONS

    • YERSINIA PESTIS
    • ENTEROPATHOGENIC YERSINIAE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    321: WHOOPING COUGH AND OTHER BORDETELLA INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    322: LEGIONELLA INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    323: BARTONELLA INFECTIONS

    • INFECTION OF RED BLOOD CELLS: OROYA FEVER AND TRENCH FEVER
    • CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE
    • ENDOCARDITIS
    • VASCULOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASE: VERRUGA PERUANA, BACILLARY ANGIOMATOSIS, AND PELIOSIS HEPATIS
    • Grage A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    324: GRANULOMA INGUINALE (DONOVANOSIS)

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    325: MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    326: DISEASES CAUSED BY CHLAMYDIAE

    • CHLAMYDIAL DISEASES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    327: SYPHILIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    328: NONSYPHILITIC TREPONEMATOSES

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    329: LYME DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    330: RELAPSING FEVER AND OTHER BORRELIA INFECTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    331: LEPTOSPIROSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    332: TUBERCULOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    333: THE NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    334: LEPROSY (HANSEN’S DISEASE)

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    335: RICKETTSIAL INFECTIONS

    • RICKETTSIOSES (DISEASES CAUSED BY RICKETTSIA SPECIES AND ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI )
    • EHRLICHIOSES AND ANAPLASMOSES
    • Q FEVER
    • SUGGESTED READING

    336: ZOONOSES

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    337: ACTINOMYCOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    338: NOCARDIOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    339: SYSTEMIC ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    • AMPHOTERICIN B-BASED PREPARATIONS
    • FLUCYTOSINE
    • AZOLE ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    • ECHINOCANDIN ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS
    • OTHER AGENTS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    340: HISTOPLASMOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    341: COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    342: BLASTOMYCOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    343: PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    344: CRYPTOCOCCOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    345: SPOROTRICHOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    346: CANDIDIASIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    347: ASPERGILLOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    348: MUCORMYCOSIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    349: PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    350: MYCETOMA

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    351: DEMATIACEOUS FUNGAL INFECTIONS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    352: ANTIPARASITIC THERAPY

    • TREATMENT OF HELMINTHS
    • TREATMENT OF PROTOZOAL DISEASES
    • CHAGAS’ DISEASE, AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS, AND LEISHMANIASIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    353: MALARIA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    354: AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    355: CHAGAS’ DISEASE

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    356: LEISHMANIASIS

    • VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS
    • CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    357: TOXOPLASMOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    358: CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    359: GIARDIASIS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    360: AMEBIASIS

    • FREE-LIVING AMEBAE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    361: BABESIOSIS AND OTHER PROTOZOAN DISEASES

    • BABESIOSIS
    • MISCELLANEOUS PROTOZOA
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    362: CESTODES

    • INTESTINAL TAPEWORM INFECTIONS
    • TISSUE CESTODE (CYST) INFECTION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    363: SCHISTOSOMIASIS (BILHARZIASIS)

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    364: LIVER, INTESTINAL, AND LUNG FLUKE INFECTIONS

    • THE PATHOGENS
    • FASCIOLIASIS
    • CLONORCHIASIS AND OPISTHORCHIASIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    365: INTESTINAL NEMATODE INFECTIONS

    • ASCARIASIS
    • HOOKWORM
    • TRICHURIASIS
    • ENTEROBIASIS
    • STRONGYLOIDIASIS
    • UNCOMMON INTESTINAL NEMATODIASES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    366: TISSUE NEMATODE INFECTIONS

    • TOXOCARIASIS
    • BAYLISASCARIASIS
    • TRICHINELLOSIS
    • ANGIOSTRONGYLIASIS
    • GNATHOSTOMIASIS
    • FILARIASES
    • DRACUNCULIASIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    367: ARTHROPODS AND LEECHES

    • ARTHROPODS
    • LEECHES AND OTHER ANNELIDS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    368: ANTIVIRAL THERAPY (NON-HIV)

    • MECHANISM OF ACTION
    • ANTIVIRALS FOR HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS
    • ANTIVIRALS FOR INFLUENZA VIRUS INFECTIONS
    • ANTIVIRALS FOR HEPATITIS VIRUS INFECTIONS
    • OTHER ANTIVIRALS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    369: THE COMMON COLD

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    370: RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    371: PARAINFLUENZA VIRAL DISEASE

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    372: INFLUENZA

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    373: ADENOVIRUS DISEASES

    • DISEASE IN NORMAL HOSTS
    • DISEASE IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    374: CORONAVIRUSES

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    375: MEASLES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    376: RUBELLA (GERMAN MEASLES)

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    377: MUMPS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    378: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS, AND SLOW VIRUS INFECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION
    • EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION
    • SLOW VIRUS INFECTIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    379: PARVOVIRUS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    380: SMALLPOX, MONKEYPOX, AND OTHER POXVIRUS INFECTIONS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    381: PAPILLOMAVIRUS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    382: HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS

    • HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTIONS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOSTS
    • HERPES SIMPLEX ENCEPHALITIS
    • NEONATAL HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS INFECTION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    383: VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS (CHICKENPOX, SHINGLES)

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    384: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    385: EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTION

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    386: RETROVIRUSES OTHER THAN HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS

    • ADULT T-CELL LEUKEMIA/LYMPHOMA
    • HTLV-ASSOCIATED MYELOPATHY/TROPICAL SPASTIC PARAPARESIS
    • OTHER HTLV-ASSOCIATED CONDITIONS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    387: ENTEROVIRUSES

    • SPECIFIC CLINICAL SYNDROMES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    388: ROTAVIRUSES, NOROVIRUSES, AND OTHER GASTROINTESTINAL VIRUSES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    389: VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    390: ARBOVIRUSES CAUSING FEVER AND RASH SYNDROMES

    • COLORADO TICK FEVER
    • DENGUE
    • WEST NILE FEVER VIRUS
    • PHLEBOTOMUS FEVER
    • RIFT VALLEY FEVER
    • CHIKUNGUNYA FEVER
    • O’NYONG-NYONG FEVER
    • MAYARO FEVER
    • ROSS RIVER FEVER VIRUS (EPIDEMIC FEBRILE POLYARTHRITIS)
    • SINDBIS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    391: ARBOVIRUSES AFFECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • EASTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    • WESTERN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    • VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS
    • JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS
    • WEST NILE FEVER AND ENCEPHALITIS
    • ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS
    • MURRAY VALLEY ENCEPHALITIS AND ROCIO ENCEPHALITIS
    • TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS
    • CALIFORNIA SEROGROUP ENCEPHALITIS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXIV HIV AND THE ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    392: EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • GLOBAL STATISTICS
    • DEMOGRAPHIC, SOCIAL, AND ECONOMIC IMPACT OF HIV AND AIDS
    • THE GLOBAL RESPONSE
    • REGIONAL EPIDEMICS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    393: IMMUNOPATHOGENESIS OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    • PRIMARY INFECTION
    • HIV-1-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY
    • THE EFFECT OF HIV-1 REPLICATION ON THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
    • CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF HIV INFECTION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    394: BIOLOGY OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES

    • DISCOVERY OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES
    • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 1
    • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPE 2
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    395: PREVENTION OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    • MODES OF HIV TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION
    • PREVENTION INTERVENTIONS FOR HIV-POSITIVE INDIVIDUALS
    • VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    396: TREATMENT OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    • ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY
    • PREVENTION OF HIV-ASSOCIATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
    • MANAGEMENT OF HIV-ASSOCIATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS
    • IMMUNE RECONSTITUTION SYNDROMES
    • MANAGEMENT OF HIV-ASSOCIATED NEOPLASMS
    • PREGNANCY AND HIV INFECTION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    397: GASTROINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV AND AIDS

    • INTRODUCTION
    • GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES FOUND WITH CD4 + COUNTS GREATER THAN 200 TO 500 CELLS/µL
    • GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES MORE COMMONLY SEEN WITH CD4 + COUNTS LESS THAN 200 CELLS/µL
    • APPROACH TO GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    398: PULMONARY MANIFESTATIONS OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION AND ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    399: SKIN MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    • INFECTIOUS MANIFESTATIONS
    • TUMORS
    • INFLAMMATORY MANIFESTATIONS
    • METABOLIC MANIFESTATIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    400: HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY IN PATIENTS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    • HIV HEMATOLOGY
    • HIV ONCOLOGY
    • HHV-8-RELATED LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASES
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    401: NEUROLOGIC COMPLICATIONS OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION

    • HIV-ASSOCIATED NEUROCOGNITIVE DISORDERS
    • HIV MYELOPATHY
    • HIV PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
    • HIV MYOPATHY
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    402: IMMUNE RECONSTITUTION INFLAMMATORY SYNDROME IN HIV/AIDS

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READING

SECTION XXV NEUROLOGY

    403: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH NEUROLOGIC DISEASE

    • ACUTE NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS REQUIRING IMMEDIATE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
    • NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION
    • COMMON COMPLAINTS OF POSSIBLE NEUROLOGIC ORIGIN
    • NEUROLOGIC DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    404: PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS IN MEDICAL PRACTICE

    • OVERVIEW
    • MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
    • BIPOLAR DISORDER
    • OTHER MOOD DISORDERS
    • ANXIETY DISORDERS
    • PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS
    • SOMATOFORM DISORDERS
    • PERSONALITY DISORDERS
    • SUICIDE AND EVALUATION OF SUICIDALITY
    • WHEN TO REFER A PATIENT FOR PSYCHIATRIC EVALUATION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    405: HEADACHES AND OTHER HEAD PAIN

    • MIGRAINE HEADACHE
    • TENSION-TYPE HEADACHE
    • CLUSTER HEADACHE AND OTHER TRIGEMINAL AUTONOMIC CEPHALALGIAS
    • CHRONIC DAILY HEADACHE
    • SINUS HEADACHE
    • SECONDARY CAUSES OF HEADACHES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    406: TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY AND SPINAL CORD INJURY

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    407: MECHANICAL AND OTHER LESIONS OF THE SPINE, NERVE ROOTS, AND SPINAL CORD  

    • DISORDERS OF THE SPINE
    • DISORDERS OF THE NERVE ROOTS
    • DISORDERS OF THE SPINAL CORD
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    408: REGIONAL CEREBRAL DYSFUNCTION: HIGHER MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    • MEMORY FUNCTION AND AMNESIC DISORDERS
    • THE APHASIAS
    • CORTICAL DISORDERS OF VISUAL FUNCTION AND HEMISPATIAL NEGLECT
    • EXECUTIVE COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION AND CONTROL OF PERSONAL BEHAVIOR
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    409: ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS

    • DEMENTIA
    • MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT
    • ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE
    • VASCULAR DEMENTIA
    • DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES
    • FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    410: THE EPILEPSIES

    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    411: COMA, VEGETATIVE STATE, AND BRAIN DEATH

    • COMA
    • THE VEGETATIVE STATE
    • THE MINIMALLY CONSCIOUS STATE
    • THE LOCKED-IN SYNDROME
    • BRAIN DEATH
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    412: DISORDERS OF SLEEP

    • SPECIFIC SLEEP DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    413: APPROACH TO CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES

    • CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA
    • CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE
    • CEREBRAL EDEMA
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    414: ISCHEMIC CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    • UNUSUAL CAUSES OF STROKE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    415: HEMORRHAGIC CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASE

    • SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE
    • SPECIFIC CAUSES AND THEIR TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS
    • PRIMARY INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE
    • HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    416: PARKINSONISM  

    • PARKINSON’S DISEASE
    • OTHER CAUSES OF PARKINSONISM
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    Chapter 417: OTHER MOVEMENT DISORDERS  

    • TREMOR
    • CHOREA
    • DYSTONIA
    • TICS
    • Tourette’s Syndrome
    • MYOCLONUS
    • HYPEREXPLEXIA
    • OTHER MOVEMENT DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    418: AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS AND OTHER MOTOR NEURON DISEASES  

    • AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS
    • SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES
    • SPINOBULBAR MUSCULAR ATROPHY/KENNEDY’S DISEASE
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    419: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS AND DEMYELINATING CONDITIONS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    • MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS
    • OTHER DISEASES OF MYELIN
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    420: MENINGITIS: BACTERIAL, VIRAL, AND OTHER

    • BACTERIAL MENINGITIS
    • VIRAL MENINGITIS
    • OTHER MENINGITIDES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    421: BRAIN ABSCESS AND PARAMENINGEAL INFECTIONS

    • BRAIN ABSCESS
    • SPINAL EPIDURAL ABSCESS
    • SUBDURAL EMPYEMA
    • VENOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS SECONDARY TO INFECTION
    • NEUROLOGIC COMPLICATIONS OF INFECTIOUS ENDOCARDITIS
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    422: ACUTE VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS

    • SELECTED SPECIFIC VIRUSES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    423: POLIOMYELITIS

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    424: PRION DISEASES

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    425: NUTRITIONAL AND ALCOHOL-RELATED NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS

    • DEFICIENCY OF WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • DEFICIENCY OF FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS
    • DEFICIENCY OF MISCELLANEOUS ELEMENTS AND NUTRIENTS
    • ALCOHOL-RELATED DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    426: CONGENITAL, DEVELOPMENTAL, AND NEUROCUTANEOUS DISORDERS

    • CONGENITAL DISORDERS
    • DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    • NEUROCUTANEOUS DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    427: AUTONOMIC DISORDERS AND THEIR MANAGEMENT

    • BRAIN DISORDERS
    • SPINAL CORD DISORDERS
    • PERIPHERAL GANGLIONOPATHIES AND NEUROPATHIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    428: PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES  

    • APPROACH TO PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES
    • INHERITED NEUROPATHIES
    • INFLAMMATORY AND IMMUNOLOGIC NEUROPATHIES
    • PARANEOPLASTIC NEUROPATHIES
    • VASCULITIC NEUROPATHIES
    • CRITICAL ILLNESS NEUROPATHY
    • DIABETIC AND OTHER METABOLIC NEUROPATHIES
    • INFECTIOUS NEUROPATHIES
    • TOXIC AND DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    429: MUSCLE DISEASES

    • SPECIFIC MUSCLE DISEASES
    • INFLAMMATORY MUSCLE DISEASES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    430: DISORDERS OF NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION

    • AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES
    • ACQUIRED NEUROMYOTONIA
    • GENETIC MYASTHENIC SYNDROMES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXVI EYE, EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DISEASES

    431: DISEASES OF THE VISUAL SYSTEM

    • COMMON CLINICAL CONDITIONS
    • INFLAMMATORY EYE DISORDERS
    • INFECTIOUS EYE DISORDERS
    • STRUCTURAL AND AGE-RELATED DISORDERS
    • SYSTEMIC DISEASES WITH OCULAR SYMPTOMS DURING ADULTHOOD
    • VASCULAR ABNORMALITIES OF THE EYE
    • IDIOPATHIC INFLAMMATORY AND AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS
    • GENETICALLY DETERMINED DISEASES THAT MAY BECOME SYMPTOMATIC DURING ADULTHOOD
    • COMMON PEDIATRIC OR ADOLESCENT DISEASES THAT MAY PERSIST INTO ADULTHOOD
    • TUMORS OF THE EYE
    • OCULAR EFFECTS OF SYSTEMIC MEDICATIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    432: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY

    • VISION
    • PUPILLARY CONTROL
    • OCULOMOTOR CONTROL
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    433: DISEASES OF THE MOUTH AND SALIVARY GLANDS

    • ORAL MUCOSAL DISEASES
    • ORAL SOFT TISSUE TUMORS
    • SALIVARY GLAND DISEASES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    434: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH NOSE, SINUS, AND EAR DISORDERS

    • NASAL AND SINUS COMPLAINTS
    • EAR PAIN
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    435: SMELL AND TASTE

    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    436: HEARING AND EQUILIBRIUM

    • DISORDERS OF THE AUDITORY SYSTEM
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    437: THROAT DISORDERS

    • DISEASE OF THE PHARYNX
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXVII MEDICAL CONSULTATION

    438: PRINCIPLES OF MEDICAL CONSULTATION

    • APPROACH TO MEDICAL CONSULTATION
    • SETTING-SPECIFIC CONSULTATIVE ISSUES
    • STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE CONSULTATION
    • SPECIAL CONSULTATIVE SITUATIONS
    • RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE CONSULTANT
    • IMPACT OF CONSULTATIONS ON PATIENT OUTCOME
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    439: PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION

    • PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION
    • GRADE A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    440: OVERVIEW OF ANESTHESIA

    • PREOPERATIVE ASSESSMENT
    • ANAPHYLAXIS IN THE PERIOPERATIVE PERIOD
    • INTRAOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
    • GENERAL VERSUS REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
    • NAUSEA AND VOMITING
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    441: POSTOPERATIVE CARE AND COMPLICATIONS

    • POSTOPERATIVE CARE
    • COMPLICATIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    442: MEDICAL CONSULTATION IN PSYCHIATRY

    • HEALTH STATUS IN PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS
    • MEDICAL EVALUATION IN PSYCHIATRIC SETTINGS
    • EVALUATION OF CHIEF COMPLAINTS
    • MEDICAL COMPLICATIONS OF PSYCHIATRIC TREATMENTS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

SECTION XXVIII SKIN DISEASES

    443: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE SKIN

    • KEY FUNCTIONS OF THE SKIN
    • STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN
    • SPECIALIZED ASPECTS OF SKIN STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    444: EXAMINATION OF THE SKIN AND APPROACH TO DIAGNOSING SKIN DISEASES

    • EXAMINATION OF THE SKIN
    • DIAGNOSING SKIN DISEASES
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    445: PRINCIPLES OF THERAPY OF SKIN DISEASES

    • PRINCIPLES OF TOPICAL THERAPY
    • ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS
    • ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
    • ANTIPRURITIC OR ANESTHETIC AGENTS
    • AGENTS THAT IMPROVE SURFACE FUNCTIONS (LUBRICATION, SCALE)
    • IMMUNE THERAPIES
    • OTHER THERAPIES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    446: ECZEMAS, PHOTODERMATOSES, PAPULOSQUAMOUS (INCLUDING FUNGAL) DISEASES, AND FIGURATE ERYTHEMAS

    • ECZEMA
    • PHOTODERMATOSES
    • PAPULOSQUAMOUS (INCLUDING FUNGAL) DISEASES
    • FIGURATE ERYTHEMIAS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    447: MACULAR, PAPULAR, VESICULOBULLOUS, AND PUSTULAR DISEASES

    • MACULAR AND PAPULAR EXANTHEMS
    • VESICULOBULLOUS DISEASES
    • PUSTULAR ERUPTIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    448: URTICARIA, DRUG HYPERSENSITIVITY RASHES, NODULES AND TUMORS, AND ATROPHIC DISEASES

    • URTICARIA
    • DRUG RASHES
    • BENIGN PAPULES, NODULES, AND TUMORS
    • ATROPHIC AND SCLEROTIC LESIONS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    449: INFECTIONS, HYPER-AND HYPOPIGMENTATION, REGIONAL DERMATOLOGY, AND DISTINCTIVE LESIONS IN BLACK SKIN

    • INFECTIONS, INCLUDING CELLULITIS
    • DISORDERS OF HYPOPIGMENTATION AND HYPERPIGMENTATION
    • DISTINCTIVE LESIONS IN BLACK SKIN
    • REGIONAL DERMATOSES
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

    450: DISEASES OF HAIR AND NAILS

    • HAIR DISORDERS
    • TELOGEN EFFLUVIUM
    • DIFFUSE ALOPECIA
    • PATCHY ALOPECIA
    • HAIR DISORDERS IN CHILDREN
    • RACIAL DIFFERENCES
    • EXCESSIVE HAIR GROWTH
    • NAIL DISORDERS
    • NAIL DISORDERS
    • Grade A
    • SUGGESTED READINGS

Appendix LABORATORY REFERENCE INTERVALS AND VALUES

    REFERENCE INTERVALS AND LABORATORY VALUES*