MEASURING CARING

Author: John Nelson, RN, MS, PhDc, Jean Watson, PhD, RN, AHN-BC, FAAN
Affiliation: Healthcare Environment, Inc.
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
Publication Date: 2012
ISBN 10: 0826163513
ISBN 13: 9780826163516
Edition: 1st

Description:

Jean Watson's Theory of Human Caring (Caritas) is now used in approximately 300 clinical institutions in the United States and other institutions worldwide. This new addition to Springer's Watson Science Caring Institute Library is the first international compendium of Caritas research. Presenting the findings of 41 studies from 12 countries, it examines similarities and differences in the ways in which countries apply Watson's Theory regarding relationships between nurses and patients, and nurses and their colleagues, and how it is used to resolve outcome issues system-wide. The book also includes the Caring Factor Survey, a primary research tool for those using the Caritas process, which identifies constructs that either support or impede caring in multiple settings. It is offered, along with five adaptations, for use as a written or digital adjunct. The volume serves as a complement to Watson's Assessing and Measuring Caring in Nursing and Health Care as well as the forthcoming Creating a Caring Science Curriculum: An Emancipatory Pedagogy for Nursing.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • About the Author
  • DEDICATION
  • Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments

SECTION I Theoretical Background of Caritas

    Concepts of Caring as Construct of Caritas Hierarchy in Nursing Knowledge: Conceptual-Theoretical-Empirical (CTE)

    • Nursing Theory: Advancing the Discipline and Transforming Practice
    • Concept Analysis
    • The Future of Nursing Knowledge: Caritas Processes as Middle-Range Theory Concepts
    • Caring in the Metaparadigm of Nursing
    • References

    Caring Science as Metaparadigm

    • Basic Assumptions of Caring Science
    • Premises of Caring Science
    • Measurement of Caritas
    • References

    The Caritas Process of Hope as a Midrange Theory

    • Defining the Concept of Hope
    • The “Lived Experience” of Hope
    • Influences on Hope
    • Relationships Between Hope and Other Concepts
    • The Root of Nursing: Caring
    • Carative Factors
    • “To Cure” or “to Care”?
    • Conclusion
    • References

    Caring Factor Survey and Adaptations

    • References

    The Practice of Loving Kindness to Self and Others as Perceived by Nurses and Patients in the Cardiac Interventional Unit (CIU)

    • Reference

    Creation of the Caring Factor Survey–CareProvider Version (CFS-CPV)

    • Reference

    Family Used as Proxy to Measure Caring

    • Literature Review
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • References

    Preceptor Caring Attributes as Perceived by Graduate Nurses

    • Background
    • Purpose of the Study
    • Methodology
    • Sample
    • Results
    • Discussion and Implications
    • References

    Nurses’ Perceptions of Being Cared For Within the Hospital Environment: Adapting the Caring Factor Survey to the Bon Secours St. Francis Caring Work Environment Survey

    • Intervention
    • Analysis
    • Results
    • Discussion

    Development of the Caring Factor Survey–Caring of Manager (CFS-CM)

    • The Caring Factor Survey–Caring of Manager (CFS-CM)
    • Psychometric Evaluation of the CFS-CM
    • The Application of the CFS-CM to Assess the Relationships Between Manager Caring and Workplace Bullying
    • Secondary Study Aims
    • References

SECTION II Measurement and Methods for Connecting Nurse to Patient

    Measuring Caring in Primary Nursing

    • Tenets of Primary Nursing
    • Clarity in Primary Nursing
    • Primary Nursing at (NYP/CU)
    • Education for Primary Nursing
    • Research Study of Primary Nursing at (NYP/CU)
    • Evidence and Evaluation
    • Discussion
    • References

    Patient and Nurse Perception of the Individual Caring Relationship

    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Profile of a Nurse Effective in Caring

    • Background
    • Purpose
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion and Implications
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Making the “Quantum Leap”: Biochemical Markers of Human Caring Science

    • Caring in Nursing
    • Caring Begets Safety in Nursing
    • Caring Nursing Affects Healing
    • Missing Link: Biochemistry of Caring Nursing
    • Quantum Leap: A Research Proposal
    • Concluding Remarks
    • References

SECTION III Measurement and Interventions to Facilitate Caritas

    Measurement of Caring in a Relationship-Based Care Model of Nursing

    • Background
    • Vision and Strategy
    • Infrastructure of Shared Governance
    • Educational Programming
    • Relationship-Based Care Vision
    • INSPIRATION AND Infrastructure
    • Education
    • Evaluation
    • Integrated Outcomes Dashboard
    • The Ongoing Journey
    • Case Study 2: Avera Health, South Dakota
    • References

    Integrating Human Caring Science Into a Professional Nursing Practice Model

    • Background
    • Opportunities Identified
    • Literature Review
    • Purpose
    • Study Design
    • Methods
    • Limitations of the Study
    • Moving Beyond the Study
    • Summary
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Impact of Intentional Caring Behaviors on Nurses’ Perceptions of Caring in the Workplace, Nurses’ Intent to Stay, and Patients’ Perceptions of Being Cared For

    • Background
    • Theoretical Framework
    • Significance
    • Purpose
    • Research Questions
    • Design and Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgment
    • References

    Caring at the Core: Maximizing the Likelihood That a Caring Moment Will Occur

    • Background
    • Inspiration
    • Infrastructure
    • Education
    • Evidence
    • Methods
    • Caring-at-the-Core Measures
    • Procedures
    • Results
    • Healthcare Environment Survey (HES)
    • Caring Surveys
    • Correlations Between Measures
    • Discussion
    • Next Steps
    • References

    “Partners in Care”: Patient and Staff Responses to a New Model of Care Delivery

    • PURPOSE
    • BACKGROUND
    • METHODS
    • Results
    • CARING FACTOR SURVEY–CARE PROVIDER VERSION (CFS-CPV)
    • DISCUSSION
    • LIMITATIONS
    • Future Evaluation
    • References
    • Appendix 13.1 Five Caring Behaviors Adopted by Unit-Based Council
    • Appendix 13.2 Caring Factor Survey Items
    • Appendix 13.3 Caring Factor Survey–Care Providers Version Items

    The Caring Moment and Participative Action Research (PAR) in Outcomes Management

    • Background/Review of Literature
    • Overview of The Project
    • The Survey Instrument
    • Procedure
    • Data Analysis
    • Interaction of Nursing Units
    • DISCUSSION
    • Considerations/Next Steps
    • References

    Therapeutic Music Pilot in the Context of Human Caring Theory

    • Role of The Doctorate of Nursing Practice
    • Background
    • Moving Forward in The Journey: Conducting An Evidence-Based-Practice Pilot Project
    • Pilot Study Methodology
    • Data Analysis
    • Findings
    • Discussion
    • Merging My Journey With Others: Nursing Implications
    • References

    CaritasHeartMathTM in the Emergency Department Setting: The Impact of Self-Care on Practitioners

    • HISTORY
    • Preparation
    • Funding
    • Study Background
    • Significance and Practice Implications
    • Participants
    • Study Design
    • Data Analyses
    • References

SECTION IV International Measurement of Caritas: Exemplars From the Field

    First Measurement of Caritas in Italy

    • Procedures
    • Presentation of The Results
    • Discussion
    • Conclusion
    • References

    Utilization of the Clinical Caritas Process in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in the Philippines

    • Materials and Methods
    • Results
    • Conclusion
    • Recommendations
    • References

    Reflection as a Process to Understand Caring Behaviors During Implementation of Relationship-Based Care in a Community Health Service in England

    • A World Pilot
    • The Importance of Reflection
    • Reflective Practice in A Community Environment
    • Interprofessional Working
    • Clinical Supervision
    • Results Used Within Reflective Practice At Rotherham
    • Practical Support For Reflection
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgment
    • References

    A Chinese Cultural Perspective of Nursing Care in Macao, China

    • Background
    • Literature Review
    • Caring Factor Survey’s 10-Item Chinese-Version Study
    • Methodology
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Limitations
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

SECTION V International Comparison of Caritas

    Comparison of Caritas in Health Care Facilities in Macao, China; Italy; the Philippines; and the United States as Perceived by Patients

    • Background
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Implications
    • Summary
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

    Nurses’ Caring for Self: a Four-Country Descriptive Study (England, Israel, New Zealand, and the United States)

    • Background
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • Implications
    • Conclusion
    • Acknowledgments
    • References

Appendices Exemplars of Caritas From Specific Populations

    The Holistic Perspective of Nursing: The Caring Factor Survey in a Hospice in Italy

    Caring Behaviors of Community Health Nurses in a Barangay Health Center in Makati City, the Philippines

    Extent of Utilization of the Clinical Caritas Process as Perceived by Nurses in the Philippines

    The Presence of Caring Among Long-Term Care Nurses in the United States

    Caring Attitudes of Nurses From the United States Toward Medical-Surgical Patients Who Have a Diagnosis of Drug Addiction

    Caring for Patients With Breast Cancer in the Philippines

    A U.S. Study of Nurses’ Self-Care and Compassion Fatigue Using Watson’s Concepts of Caritas

    Caring in the Context of Curing: What are Patients’ Perceptions of Nurse Caring When Receiving ECT in the PACU?