DISASTER NURSING AND EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS This title has been archived.

Author: Tener Veenema, PhD, MPH, MS, CPNP
Affiliation: University of Rochester School of Nursing
Publisher: Springer Publishing Company
Publication Date: 2007
ISBN 10: 0826121446
ISBN 13: 9780826121448
Edition: 2nd

Description:

In light of recent global events and natural disasters, nurses need comprehensive, updated best practices to prepare for all types of emergencies. Each chapter of this expanded text begins with key points and learning objectives and ends with a case study to enhance retention. Also included are updates of the guidelines provided in the Federal Disaster Response Plan and the National Incident Management System(NIMS) and therapeutic recommendations from the CDCP. Disaster Nursing will prepare any nurse or EMS team to provide health care under a variety of disaster conditions.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • About the Editor
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Contributors
  • DEDICATION
  • Foreword
  • Foreword
  • Special Foreword

Part I: Disaster Preparedness

    Essentials of Disaster Planning

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS
    • DECLARATION OF A DISASTER
    • HEALTH EFFECTS OF DISASTERS
    • THE DISASTER CONTINUUM
    • DISASTER PLANNING
    • TYPES OF DISASTER PLANNING
    • CHALLENGES TO DISASTER PLANNING
    • HAZARD IDENTIFICATION, VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS, AND RISK ASSESSMENT
    • CAPACITY TO RESPOND
    • CORE PREPAREDNESS ACTIVITIES
    • EVALUATION OF A DISASTER PLAN
    • SITUATIONS SUGGESTIVE OF AN INCREASED NEED FOR PLANNING
    • PROFESSIONAL NURSING MANDATE
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • Case Study 1.1: FEMA: The Disaster Process and Disaster Aid Programs
    • Case Study 1.2: National Student Nurses Association 2006 Resolution for Student Nurses Disaster and Emergency Preparedness

    Leadership and Coordination in Disaster Health Care Systems: The Federal Disaster Response Network

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES RESPONSE
    • NATIONAL RESPONSE PLAN
    • ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
    • FEDERAL DEFINITION OF A DISASTER CONDITION
    • CHALLENGES TO HEALTH SYSTEMS’ LEADERSHIP AND COORDINATION
    • OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR NURSES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • EDITOR’S NOTE
    • Case Study 2.1: HIPAA and Disaster Nursing Research

    Emergency Health Services

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • THE EMERGENCY HEALTH SERVICES SYSTEM
    • MAJOR EHS CONCEPTS ASSOCIATED WITH DISASTERS
    • RESOURCES FOR THE EHS SYSTEM
    • PATIENT ACCESS TO EHS DURING A DISASTER
    • MAJOR EHS ISSUES
    • SUMMARY
    • CRITICAL ACTIONS

    American Red Cross Disaster Health Services and Disaster Nursing

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
    • CONGRESSIONAL CHARTER
    • MISSION OF THE AMERICAN RED CROSS
    • AMERICAN RED CROSS AND THE UNITED STATES ARMED FORCES
    • HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN RED CROSS
    • OVERVIEW OF AMERICAN RED CROSS DISASTER HEALTH SERVICES
    • RED CROSS DISASTER PARTNERS
    • THE NATIONAL RESPONSE PLAN AND THE AMERICAN RED CROSS
    • AMERICAN RED CROSS AT THE LOCAL LEVEL
    • AMERICAN RED CROSS AT THE STATE AND NATIONAL LEVELS
    • THE AVIATION DISASTER FAMILY ASSISTANCE ACT OF 1996 (ADFAA)
    • MAJOR DISASTERS IN RED CROSS HISTORY
    • RED CROSS DISASTER NURSING
    • ROLE OF THE AMERICAN RED CROSS NURSE DURING A DISASTER
    • SHELTER NURSING—(THE ART OF DISASTER)
    • SUMMARY
    • APPENDIX I
    • Case Study 4.1: American Red Cross Milestones in History
    • Case Study 4.2: The Role of the American Red Cross Nurse

    Understanding the Psychosocial Impact of Disasters

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • BIOTERRORISM AND TOXIC EXPOSURES
    • COMMUNITY IMPACT AND RESOURCE ASSESSMENT
    • REDUCING RESISTANCE TO PSYCHOSOCIAL INTERVENTION
    • NORMAL REACTIONS TO ABNORMAL EVENTS
    • STRESS REACTIONS AMONG CHILDREN AND YOUTH
    • THE CARE AND SAFEGUARDING OF AMERICA’S CHILDREN
    • SPECIAL NEEDS POPULATIONS
    • COMMUNITY REACTIONS AND RESPONSES
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • USEFUL LINKS
    • Case Study 5.1: A Personal Perspective on the Resilience of Katrina and Tsunami Survivors
    • Case Study 5.2: School-Mental Health Collaboration
    • Case Study 5.3: Secondary Traumatization in Disaster Workers and First Responders: The Cost of Caring

    Legal and Ethical Issues in Disaster Response

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • LEGAL AND ETHICAL FRAMEWORK AND BACKGROUND
    • EFFECT OF LAW ON NURSE PROFESSIONALS
    • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ETHICAL AND LEGAL OBLIGATIONS
    • THE MODEL STATE EMERGENCY HEALTH POWERS ACT
    • THE ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN A PUBLIC HEALTH CRISIS
    • SPECIFIC LEGAL AND ETHICAL ISSUES
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 6.1: Dark Winter: An Excerpt From “Shining Light on Dark Winter”

    Crisis Communication: The Role of the Media

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • EFFECTS OF MEDIA COVERAGE PERCEPTIONS OF PREPAREDNESS
    • DIVERGENT OBJECTIVES OF TERRORISTS
    • I. CRISIS AND EMERGENCY RISK COMMUNICATION: FEEDING THE MEDIA
    • II. RADIO, TV, AND PRINT PRESS AS PLATFORMS TO “GO PUBLIC”
    • III. MASS-MEDIATED EMERGENCY RESPONSE EFFORTS
    • IV. THE CASE FOR MEDIA-MONITORS
    • V. COOPERATION IS BETTER THAN CONFRONTATION
    • VI. REPORTERS ARE NOT ALWAYS ENTITLED TO ACCESS
    • VII. THE INTERNET AS ALTERNATIVE MEDIA
    • VIII. THE HUMAN FACE OF EMERGENCY RESPONDERS
    • SUMMARY: MASS-MEDIATED EMERGENCY RESPONSE
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 7.1: Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication

Part II: Disaster Management

    Disaster Management

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • DISASTER MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS
    • LEADERSHIP STYLES FOR DISASTER MANAGEMENT OPERATIONS
    • PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
    • ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS FOR HOSPITAL DISASTER MANAGEMENT
    • HOSPITAL INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (HICS)
    • COMMUNICATION
    • ALTERED STANDARDS OF CARE
    • RECOVERY
    • EVALUATION AND FOLLOW-THROUGH
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • USEFUL LINKS/ INTERNET-BASED ACTIVITIES

    Disaster Triage

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • PRINCIPLES OF DISASTER TRIAGE
    • IN-HOSPITAL TRIAGE SYSTEMS
    • PREHOSPITAL AND DISASTER TRIAGE PROCESS
    • DISASTER TRIAGE SYSTEMS
    • SUCCESSFUL DISASTER TRIAGE PRINCIPLES
    • DISASTER TRIAGE FOR CHEMICAL AND HAZARDOUS MATERIAL DISASTERS
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS

    Restoring Public Health Under Disaster Conditions: Basic Sanitation, Water and Food Supply, and Shelter

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • BASIC PUBLIC HEALTH FUNCTIONS
    • HEALTH PROMOTION
    • MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
    • RISK FACTORS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE OUTBREAKS FROM DISASTERS
    • RAPID ASSESSMENT OF POPULATION HEALTH NEEDS
    • MINIMUM STANDARDS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 10.1: Ten Essential Functions of Public Health
    • Case Study 10.2: World Health Organization (WHO)
    • Case Study 10.3: Water-Related Diseases: Trachoma
    • Case Study 10.4: Water-Related Diseases: Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
    • The Cause
    • Distribution
    • Scope of the Problem
    • Interventions
    • Case Study 10.5: Public Health in a Katrina Shelter

    Managing Emergencies Outside of the Hospital: Special Events, Mass Gatherings, and Mass Casualty Incidents

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • MASS GATHERINGS
    • MASS CASUALTY INCIDENTS
    • PRACTICE PARAMETERS FOR NURSING CARE
    • HISTORICAL LESSONS
    • TYPE OF EVENT
    • DURATION OF THE EVENT
    • CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CROWD
    • WEATHER AND ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
    • ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE
    • CROWD MOOD
    • SITE LAYOUT
    • MEDICAL AND NURSING AID STATIONS
    • TRANSPORTATION CONSIDERATIONS
    • COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
    • STAFFING
    • DOCUMENTATION
    • SUMMARY
    • Case Study 11.1: The Emergency Nurses Association and Its Position on Mass Casualty Incidents
    • Case Study 11.2: Rapid Assessment of Injuries Following a Mass Casualty Event
    • Case Study 11.3: Mass Casualty Prediction for Receiving Hospitals
    • Case Study 11.4: AHRQ Conference on Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events
    • Key Findings of the Meeting

    Management of Burn Mass Casualty Incidents

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • PREPAREDNESS/PLANNING
    • MITIGATION
    • RESPONSE
    • RECOVERY
    • EVALUATION
    • SUMMARY
    • Case Study 12.1: The Bali Burn Disaster
    • Case Study 12.2: The Station Nightclub Fire
    • Case Study 12.3: American Burn Association Disaster Plan Disaster Management and the ABA Plan
    • ABA NDMS Policy
    • ABA Burn Bed Availability Policy
    • Military Support to Civil Authorities
    • ABA Burn Smart Team Policy
    • ABA Action Items on Disaster Preparedness
    • Case Study 12.4: ABA Burn Center Referral Criteria

    Traumatic Injury Due to Explosives and Blast Effects

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CLASSIFICATION OF EXPLOSIVES
    • MECHANISMS AND CLASSIFICATION OF INJURY
    • BLAST INJURIES AND CLINICAL CARE OF SURVIVORS
    • EVENT MANAGEMENT
    • THE DISASTER PARADIGM
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS

    Management of Psychosocial Effects

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • THE MENTAL HEALTH RESPONSE TEAM
    • RECRUITMENT, SCREENING, AND TRAINING
    • ACUTE STRESS DISORDER
    • PSYCHOLOGICAL FIRST AID
    • CRITICAL INCIDENT STRESS MANAGEMENT
    • MANAGING TRANSITIONS
    • WHEN GRIEF AND STRESS GO AWRY
    • TRAUMATIC GRIEF (COMPLICATED BEREAVEMENT)
    • POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • USEFUL LINKS
    • Case Study 14.1: Acute Anxiety Reaction in a 9-Year-Old Child
    • Case Study 14.2: Mental Health Relief Services Following the World Trade Center Disaster, Fall 2001

    Unique Needs of Children During Disasters and Other Public Health Emergencies

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PEDIATRIC INJURIES AND ILLNESSES IN DISASTERS AND PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES
    • PHYSIOLOGIC CONSIDERATIONS IN PEDIATRIC CARE FOLLOWING A DISASTER OR PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY
    • CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE NEEDS
    • PSYCHOSOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PEDIATRIC CARE
    • PEDIATRIC CARE DURING DISASTERS
    • PEDIATRIC CARE DURING PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES
    • ETHICAL AND LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS IN PEDIATRIC DISASTER CARE
    • PEDIATRIC DEATH FOLLOWING DISASTERS AND PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCIES
    • PLANNING FOR DISASTERS—PEDIATRIC-SPECIFIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • Case Study 15.1: Children’s Health and Disaster Preparedness

    Identifying and Accommodating High-Risk and High-Vulnerability Populations

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • DEFINING THE POPULATION
    • THE MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE POOR
    • STATISTICAL PROFILE OF THE POOR
    • A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS
    • THE LANGUAGE BARRIER
    • WHO IS DISABLED?
    • ACCOMMODATING THE NEEDS OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THE ELDERLY
    • ACCOMMODATING PERSONS WITH SENSORY DISABILITIES
    • THE NEED FOR INCLUSION
    • Recommended Reading and Further Resources
    • Institutional Planning Level
    • Individual Planning Level
    • Case Study 16.1: Caring for Special Needs and High-Risk High-Vulnerability Patients
    • Discussion Questions
    • Case Study 16.2: Association of Rehabilitation Nurses as a Resource for Disaster Planning for People With Disabilities: A Population at Special Risk

Part III: Natural and Environmental Disasters

    Natural Disasters

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • TYPES AND CONSEQUENCES OF NATURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS
    • HEAT WAVE
    • CYCLONES, HURRICANES, AND TYPHOONS
    • DROUGHT
    • EARTHQUAKE
    • EPIDEMICS
    • FLOOD
    • TORNADO
    • THUNDERSTORMS
    • TSUNAMI
    • WINTER/ICE STORMS
    • WILDFIRES
    • SUMMARY
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • Case Study 17.1: Deaths Associated With Hurricane George, Puerto Rico, September 1998
    • Case Study 17.2: Emergency Mosquito Control Associated With Hurricane Andrew, Florida and Louisiana, 1992
    • Case Study 17.3: Emerging Infectious Diseases: Coccidioidomycosis Following the Northridge Earthquake, California, 1994
    • Case Study 17.4: Heat Wave-Related Mortality, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 1995
    • Case Study 17.5: A Nor’easter, December 1992
    • Case Study 17.6: Community Needs Assessment Following an Ice Storm, Maine, January 1998
    • Case Study 17.7: Tornado Disaster, Kansas, 1991
    • Case Study 17.8: West Nile Virus
    • Case Study 17.9: Ice Storm 2003 Lessons Learned

    Environmental Disasters and Emergencies

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCIES
    • ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS
    • ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING: PROTECTING COMMUNITIES THROUGH INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEILLANCE
    • ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA)
    • HURRICANE KATRINA: A NATURAL DISASTER CREATES AN ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY
    • EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS AND THEIR IMPACT
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • Environmental Disasters and Emergencies
    • Case Study 18.1: Two Cases of Vibrio cholerae Infection After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita—January 20, 2006
    • Case Study 18.2: Vibrio Illnesses Following Immersion in Floodwaters After Hurricane Katrina, September 23, 2005

Part IV: Disasters Caused by Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Agents

    Biological and Chemical Terrorism: A Unique Threat

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • CHEMICAL TERRORISM AND BIOTERRORISM DEFINED
    • WHY WOULD TERRORISTS USE CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS?
    • CHEMICAL TERRORISM
    • BIOTERRORISM
    • CASE EXAMPLES
    • MASS PSYCHOGENIC ILLNESS
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 19.1: Preparation for WMD in Omaha, Nebraska
    • Case Study 19.2: Emergency Nurses Association Position Statement: Weapons of Mass Destruction
    • Biological and Chemical Terrorism: A Unique Threat

    Surveillance Systems for Detection of Biological Events

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • HOW DOES INFECTION OCCUR?
    • HOW CAN INFECTION BE PREVENTED?
    • HOW IS DISEASE OCCURRENCE MEASURED?
    • WHAT IS PUBLIC HEALTH SURVEILLANCE?
    • WHAT TYPES OF SYSTEMS ARE USED TO COLLECT SURVEILLANCE DATA?
    • WHAT SURVEILLANCE INITIATIVES HAVE OCCURRED IN RESPONSE TO BIOTERROR THREATS?
    • THE ROLES OF STATE AND LOCAL HEALTH DEPARTMENTS IN DISEASE SURVEILLANCE SYSTEMS
    • THE ROLE OF CLINICIANS IN INFECTIOUS DISEASE SURVEILLANCE
    • SYNDROMIC SURVEILLANCE
    • VETERINARY SURVEILLANCE
    • HOW DO EMERGENCY INFORMATION SYSTEMS FIT INTO A SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM?
    • WHAT IS THE ROLE OF COMMUNITY SERVICE ORGANIZATIONS IN SURVEILLANCE?
    • WHAT ABOUT BIOSENSORS?
    • WHAT INFORMATION RESOURCES ARE AVAILABLE ABOUT SURVEILLANCE?
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 20.1: Northeastern Border Health Initiative

    Biological Agents of Concern

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • CLASSIFICATION OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF CONCERN
    • ANTHRAX
    • BOTULISM
    • PLAGUE
    • TULAREMIA
    • SMALLPOX
    • VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS
    • TREATMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS

    Early Recognition and Detection of Biological Events

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • EARLY RECOGNITION OF EVENTS
    • EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPROACH TO RECOGNITION
    • SYNDROMIC APPROACH TO RECOGNITION
    • LABORATORY DETECTION
    • OUTBREAK INVESTIGATION
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR DETECTION
    • EDUCATIONAL PREPARATION
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY REVIEW QUESTIONS
    • USEFUL LINKS/INTERNET-BASED ACTIVITIES
    • Case Study 22.1: The Laboratory Response Network

    Emerging Infectious Disease

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • BRIEF HISTORY
    • DISEASES OF IMPORTANCE
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 23.1: Augmentation of Mechanical Ventilation in Hospitals: A Guide for the Evaluation and Stockpiling of Positive Pressure Ventilation Equipment
    • Case Study 23.2: Mumps

    Design and Implementation of Mass Immunization and Prophylactic Treatment Clinics

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • HEALTH SYSTEMS OVERVIEW
    • CURRENT IMMUNIZATION AND MEDICATION RECOMMENDATIONS
    • PUBLIC HEALTH TRAINING NETWORK
    • PANDEMIC FLU INFORMATION PORTAL
    • GLOBAL OUTBREAK ALERT AND RESPONSE NETWORK
    • THE STRATEGIC NATIONAL STOCKPILE
    • MASS IMMUNIZATION AND PROPHYLACTIC TREATMENT CLINICS
    • STATEWIDE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
    • ADVANCE PLANNING
    • AVOIDING BACKLOG
    • CLINIC OPERATION
    • SUMMARY
    • COMMUNITY PLANNING EXERCISE FOR MASS IMMUNIZATION CLINICS

    Chemical Agents of Concern

    • Key Messages
    • Critical Information
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • CHEMICAL AGENTS IN THE ENVIRONMENT
    • HAZMAT EMERGENCY RESPONSE
    • DETECTION OF CHEMICAL AGENTS
    • CHEMICAL AGENTS OF CONCERN
    • ANTIDOTES
    • NERVE AGENTS
    • VESICATING/BLISTER AGENTS
    • BLOOD AGENTS
    • PULMONARY/CHOKING AGENTS
    • RIOT CONTROL AGENTS
    • EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT PROCEDURES IN CHEMICAL HAZARD EMERGENCIES
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • Case Study 25.1: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance System
    • Case Study 25.2: CDC Chemical Agents Fact Sheet: Sheltering in Place Following a Chemical Release

    Mass Casualty Decontamination

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • TRIAGE OF CONTAMINATED PATIENTS
    • DECONTAMINATION FOR CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS
    • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
    • RESPIRATORS
    • PATIENT DECONTAMINATION
    • PATIENT DECONTAMINATION IN THE FIELD
    • PATIENT DECONTAMINATION IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT
    • DECONTAMINATION PROCEDURES
    • PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • EVACUATION OF THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT
    • SUPPORTIVE MEDICAL AND NURSING CARE
    • SEIZURES
    • STATE OF THE SCIENCE
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 26.1: Chemical Decontamination System at the Center for Emergency Medical Services, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System (NSLIJHS)

    Radiological Incidents and Emergencies

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • RADIATION BASICS
    • HEALTH EFFECTS OF RADIATION EXPOSURE
    • RADIOLOGICAL INCIDENTS AND EMERGENCIES
    • MEDICAL RESPONSE TO NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL TERRORISM
    • QUESTIONS TO ASK WHEN RECEIVING AND CARING FOR RADIOLOGICAL PATIENTS (AMERICAN COLLEGE OF RADIOLOGY, 2002)
    • CONTENTS OF A CONTAMINATION CONTROL KIT
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES
    • Case Study 27.1: The Georgia Woodsmen
    • Case Study 27.2: A Pregnant Radiology Patient
    • Case Study 27.3: The Three Mile Island Experience
    • Case Study 27.4: Goiania, Brazil

Part V: Special Topics

    Directions for Nursing Education

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • NURSING EDUCATION’S ROLE IN PREPARING FOR A MASS CASUALTY RESPONSE
    • LACK OF NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR DISASTER NURSING
    • RELATING CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT TO EDUCATIONAL OUTCOMES
    • COMPETENCIES
    • COMPETENCIES FOR ALL NURSES RELATED TO MASS CASUALTY INCIDENTS
    • MCI COMPETENCIES FOR ENTRY-LEVEL NURSES IN RESPONSE TO MASS CASUALTY INCIDENTS (NEPEC, 2003)
    • SUMMARIZING NURSING EDUCATION’S ROLE IN DISASTER RESPONSES AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MCI COMPETENCIES
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 28.1: Master’s Degree Program in Leadership in Health Care Systems in Disaster Response and Emergency Preparedness

    Directions for Nursing Research and Development

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • PERSONAL ACCOUNTS OF NURSES IN DISASTER SITUATIONS
    • MILITARY NURSING RESEARCH
    • PREPARATION AND READINESS
    • FUTURE NURSING RESEARCH AGENDA
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • INTERNET ACTIVITIES

    Global Issues in Disaster Relief Nursing

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • THE SCALE OF DISASTERS WORLDWIDE
    • THE GROWTH OF AID RELIEF ORGANIZATIONS
    • THE CONTRIBUTION OF NURSING
    • DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTERNATIONAL NURSING WORKFORCE
    • CULTURAL AWARENESS AND SENSITIVITY
    • ETHICAL ISSUES IN DISASTER RELIEF NURSING
    • QUALITY ASSURANCE IN INTERNATIONAL DISASTER RESPONSE: THE HUMANITARIAN CHARTER AND THE MINIMUM STANDARDS
    • COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORT AS MAJOR OBSTACLES TO RELIEF EFFORT IN INTERNATIONAL DISASTERS
    • CARE OF DISPLACED PERSONS OR REFUGEE POPULATIONS
    • APPLICATION OF THE NURSING METAPARADIGM AND SELECTED GRAND THEORIES FROM NURSING SCIENCE
    • SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE MODELS OR GRAND THEORIES
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY REVIEW QUESTIONS

    The Role and Preparation of the Public Health Nurse for Disaster Response

    • Key Messages
    • Learning Objectives
    • CHAPTER OVERVIEW
    • INTRODUCTION
    • THE UNIQUE CONTRIBUTION OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE
    • ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN A DISASTER
    • ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN A BIOLOGICAL EVENT
    • ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN POINT OF DISTRIBUTION PLANS
    • ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN A CHEMICAL DISASTER
    • ROLE OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NURSE IN A RADIOLOGICAL EVENT
    • THE ROLE OF THE PHN ON A MULTIDISCIPLINARY RESPONSE TEAM
    • TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE PHN
    • SUMMARY
    • STUDY QUESTIONS
    • Case Study 31.1: The Use of Simulation Technology as a Means to Educate Public Health Nurses for Emergency Response

Epilogue: Disaster Recovery: Creating Sustainable Disaster-Resistant Communities

    Appendix I Internet Resources on Disaster Preparedness, Emergency Care, and Bioterrorism

    Appendix II Glossary of Terms Commonly Used in Disaster Preparedness and Response

    Appendix III Bioterrorism and Emergency Readiness: Competencies for All Public Health Workers

    Appendix IV Federal Emergency Management Agency: Emergency Response Action Steps

    Appendix V Anthrax Summary

    Appendix VI Botulism Summary

    Appendix VII Plague Summary

    Appendix VIII Smallpox Summary

    Appendix IX Tularemia Summary

    Appendix X Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Summary

    Appendix XI Biological Weapon (BW) Agent Lab Identification

    Appendix XII Patient Isolation Precautions

    Appendix XIII Creating a Personal Disaster Plan