MOSS AND ADAMS' HEART DISEASE IN INFANTS, CHILDREN, AND ADOLESCENTS This title has been archived.

Author: Hugh Allen, MD, ScD (Hon), David Driscoll, MD, Robert Shaddy, MD, Timothy Feltes, MD
Affiliation: Ohio State University College of Medicine & Heart Center at Columbus Children's Hospital
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date: 2008
ISBN 10: 0781786843
ISBN 13: 9780781786843
Edition: 7th

Description:

This classic text on pediatric cardiology has been in print since 1968. From the first edition, leaders in the field of peds cardiology have addressed the particular needs of young patients with either acquired or congenital heart disease. With improved treatment options, the young child with CHD now requires treatment as an adult. This "pediatric" text is required reading for adult cardiologists seeing patients with CHD.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • DEDICATION
  • CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
  • PREFACE
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY: HISTORICAL MILESTONES
  • TRIBUTE TO MOSS, ADAMS, AND EMMANOUILIDES

PART I STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

    CARDIAC ANATOMY AND EXAMINATION OF CARDIAC SPECIMENS

    • MEDIASTINUM
    • PERICARDIUM
    • EXTERNAL TOPOGRAPHY
    • GREAT VEINS
    • ATRIA
    • ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
    • VENTRICLES
    • SEMILUNAR VALVES
    • GREAT ARTERIES
    • CORONARY CIRCULATION
    • CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM
    • EXAMINATION OF CARDIAC SPECIMENS
    • APPENDIX 1.1 ABBREVIATIONS USED IN FIGURES IN CHAPTERS 1 AND 2
    • References

    CLASSIFICATION AND TERMINOLOGY OF CARDIOVASCULAR ANOMALIES

    • PERSPECTIVES ON NOMENCLATURE
    • SEQUENTIAL SEGMENTAL ANALYSIS
    • CARDIAC POSITION
    • VISCERAL SITUS (SIDEDNESS)
    • MORPHOLOGY OF CARDIAC SEGMENTS
    • POSITIONS OF CARDIAC SEGMENTS
    • CONNECTIONS OF CARDIAC SEGMENTS
    • APPENDIX 2.1 SYNONYMS FOR COMMONLY USED DIAGNOSTIC TERMS
    • APPENDIX 2.2 LATIN TERMS AND THEIR CORRESPONDING ANGLICIZED TERMS
    • References

PART II DIAGNOSTIC METHODS

    HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

    • HISTORY
    • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
    • VITAL SIGN ASSESSMENT
    • INSPECTION
    • PALPATION
    • PERCUSSION
    • AUSCULTATION
    • HEART SOUNDS
    • HEART MURMURS
    • INNOCENT MURMURS
    • References

    SPORTS SCREENING AND PARTICIPATION

    • PRE–ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION SCREENING
    • NORMAL CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES TO EXERCISE
    • RECOMMENDATIONS REGARDING ACTIVITY RESTRICTION IN PATIENTS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • Summary
    • References

    EXERCISE TESTING

    • BASIC EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY
    • CARDIAC RESPONSES TO EXERCISE
    • VENTILATORY RESPONSE TO EXERCISE
    • METHODOLOGY OF EXERCISE TESTING
    • TECHNIQUES OF SPECIFIC MEASUREMENTS
    • CARDIAC REHABILITATION
    • References

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

    • HISTORY
    • PHYSICS OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • THE EXAMINATION
    • CONTRAST ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • TRANSESOPHAGEAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • THREE-DIMENSIONAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • DIGITAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • RESEARCH ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • HAND-CARRIED ULTRASOUND DEVICES
    • APPENDIX 6.1
    • APPENDIX 6.2
    • APPENDIX 6.3
    • APPENDIX 6.4
    • APPENDIX 6.5
    • References

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

    • INDICATION FOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING EVALUATION OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING TECHNIQUES
    • SEDATION AND MONITORING
    • PATIENT PREPARATION
    • SAFETY
    • EXAM SUPERVISION AND INTERPRETATION
    • CLINICAL APPLICATIONS
    • EXAMPLES OF CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF CMR
    • References

    CARDIAC COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY IN CHILDREN WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    • METHODS AND TECHNIQUE
    • INDICATIONS
    • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION AND ANGIOGRAPHY

    • DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION AND ANGIOGRAPHY
    • ANGIOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • References

PART III ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

    DEVELOPMENT AND FUNCTION OF THE CARDIAC CONDUCTION SYSTEM

    • INITIATION OF THE HEARTBEAT
    • PROPAGATION OF THE ELECTRICAL IMPULSE FROM THE SINUS NODE TO THE ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE
    • ATRIOVENTRICULAR CONDUCTION
    • References

    THE NORMAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAM

    • THE HISTORY OF ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY
    • PRINCIPLES AND TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN RECORDING THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    • HOW TO READ A PEDIATRIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    • THE NORMAL ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    • GUIDELINES AND INDICATIONS
    • References

    SYNCOPE AND ASSESSMENT OF AUTONOMIC FUNCTION IN CHILDREN

    • CLASSIFICATION OF THE HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO TILT TESTING IN NEURALLY MEDIATED SYNCOPE
    • MECHANISMS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF SYNCOPE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
    • SYNCOPE EVALUATION
    • ASSESSMENT OF THE AUTONOMIC SYSTEM
    • TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH NEURALLY MEDIATED SYNCOPE
    • PROGNOSIS
    • References

    ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC STUDIES

    • PLANNING THE STUDY
    • INTRACARDIAC TECHNIQUE
    • TRANSESOPHAGEAL TECHNIQUE
    • OBJECTIVES OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC STUDY AND COMPARISON OF INTRACARDIAC AND TRANSESOPHAGEAL TECHNIQUES
    • References

    DISORDERS OF CARDIAC RHYTHM AND CONDUCTION

    • PRESENTATION AND EVALUATION
    • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF TREATMENT
    • BRADYCARDIAS, CONDUCTION ABNORMALITIES, AND PREMATURE BEATS
    • SINUS NODE DYSFUNCTION
    • ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK
    • BUNDLE BRANCH BLOCK AND FASCICULAR BLOCK
    • EXTRASYSTOLES
    • ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL RE-ENTRY, ATRIOVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIAS, AND PRE-EXCITATION SYNDROMES
    • NODOVENTRICULAR, NODOFASCICULAR, FASCICULOVENTRICULAR, AND ATRIOFASCICULAR CONNECTIONS
    • OTHER SUPRAVENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIAS
    • ATRIAL FLUTTER AND INTRA ATRIAL RE-ENTRY
    • ATRIAL FIBRILLATION
    • ECTOPIC ATRIAL TACHYCARDIAS
    • CHAOTIC ATRIAL TACHYCARDIA
    • JUNCTIONAL ECTOPIC TACHYCARDIA
    • GENERAL ASPECTS OF VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIAS
    • SPECIFIC VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIAS
    • References

    SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH

    • PHASES AND MECHANISMS OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ARRHYTHMIC SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SCD IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
    • SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH IN PATIENTS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • CARDIOMYOPATHIES
    • PRIMARY CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
    • SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH IN ATHLETES
    • EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF THE PATIENT RESUSCITATED FROM CARDIAC ARREST
    • References

PART IV THERAPEUTIC METHODS

    THERAPEUTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION

    • THE INTERVENTIONAL ARMAMENTARIUM
    • HOW TO CREATE, ENLARGE, AND MAINTAIN INTRA-ATRIAL COMMUNICATIONS
    • BALLOON AORTIC VALVULOPLASTY
    • BALLOON PULMONARY VALVULOPLASTY
    • PERFORATION OF THE ATRETIC PULMONARY VALVE
    • TRANSCATHETER TREATMENT OF STENOTIC ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
    • TRANSCATHETER MANAGEMENT OF COARCTATION, RECOARCTATION, AND AORTIC ARCH OBSTRUCTIONS
    • REHABILITATION OF (BRANCH) PULMONARY ARTERY STENOSES
    • TRANSCATHETER MANAGEMENT OF PULMONARY VEIN STENOSES
    • TRANSCATHETER MANAGEMENT OF SYSTEMIC VEIN STENOSES
    • DEVICE CLOSURE OF SEPTAL DEFECTS
    • TRANSCATHETER OCCLUSION OF PERSISTENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
    • CLOSURE OF OTHER PERSISTENT OR ABNORMAL VASCULAR COMMUNICATIONS
    • RETRIEVAL OF FOREIGN BODIES
    • MANAGEMENT OF PERIPROSTHETIC LEAKS
    • TRANSCATHETER VALVE THERAPY
    • HYBRID PROCEDURES
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIC THERAPEUTIC CATHETERIZATION

    • THE DECISION TO ABLATE: SAFETY VERSUS EFFICACY
    • ENERGY SOURCES
    • PROCEDURE—GENERAL
    • PROCEDURE—SUBSTRATE SPECIFIC
    • COMPLICATIONS AND FOLLOW-UP
    • SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR PEDIATRICS
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    PEDIATRIC HEART TRANSPLANTATION

    • PRETRANSPLANT EVALUATION
    • PRETRANSPLANT MANAGEMENT
    • POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
    • LATE FOLLOW-UP
    • References

PART V PEDIATRIC CARDIAC INTENSIVE CARE

    PHYSIOLOGY OF THE PRETERM AND TERM INFANT

    • TRANSITIONAL CIRCULATION
    • PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
    • LUNG DEVELOPMENT
    • PULMONARY HYPERTENSION
    • RESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY
    • CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTION
    • RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
    • NEUROLOGY
    • GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM
    • RENAL SYSTEM
    • CARDIAC INTERVENTION IN THE PREMATURE OR LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT NEONATE
    • INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH
    • References

    CARDIAC INTENSIVE CARE

    • PERIOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • POSTOPERATIVE CONSIDERATIONS
    • SPECIFIC SYSTEM-RELATED PROBLEMS
    • References

    CARDIAC MECHANICAL SUPPORT THERAPIES

    • ANATOMIC AND PHYSIOLOGIC DIFFERENCES IN CHILDREN
    • DURATION OF SUPPORT
    • SHORT-TERM MODES OF MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT
    • OTHER SHORT-TERM MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT DEVICES
    • LONG-TERM MECHANICAL CIRCULATORY SUPPORT FOR CHILDREN
    • References

    CARDIOPULMONARY AND RIGHT-LEFT HEART INTERACTIONS

    • COMPARISON OF RIGHT AND LEFT HEART HEMODYNAMICS
    • CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTIONS IN THE NORMAL CIRCULATION
    • CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTIONS AND THE ABNORMAL RIGHT HEART
    • CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTIONS AND THE LEFT HEART
    • RIGHT-LEFT HEART INTERACTIONS
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • References

    CARDIAC TRAUMA

    • BLUNT CARDIAC INJURY
    • PENETRATING CARDIAC INJURY
    • ELECTRICAL INJURY
    • References

PART VI FROM THE GENE TO THE NEONATE

    MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS OF CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT AND DISEASE

    • ORIGIN OF CARDIOMYOCYTE PRECURSORS
    • TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF CARDIAC PRECURSORS
    • GENETICS OF HUMAN SEPTAL DEFECTS
    • THE EPICARDIUM, CORONARY VASCULARIZATION, AND CONDUCTION SYSTEM MORPHOGENESIS
    • ADULT CONSEQUENCES OF CARDIAC MALFORMATIONS
    • CARDIAC STEM CELL AND REGENERATIVE APPROACHES
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION OF CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS

    • THE CONTRIBUTION OF EPIDEMIOLOGY TO PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY
    • IMPACT AND OUTCOMES: A LIFESPAN PERSPECTIVE
    • CLASSIFICATION OF HEART DEFECTS IN EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • OCCURRENCE AND OUTCOMES
    • RISK FACTORS: AN EPIDEMIOLOGIC ASSESSMENT
    • APPROACH TO PREVENTION
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    GENETICS OF CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS

    • METHODS AND MECHANISMS
    • PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE AND FAMILIAL RISKS
    • GENETIC SYNDROMES
    • GENETICS OF SPECIFIC CARDIAC LESIONS
    • GENETIC EVALUATION AND COUNSELING
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • References

    DEVELOPMENT OF MYOCARDIAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    • STRUCTURE
    • FUNCTION
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    FETAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY AND FETAL CARDIOLOGY

    • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
    • INDICATIONS FOR FETAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • SCREENING FOR CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF FETAL CARDIOVASCULAR PERFORMANCE
    • CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE AND ASSOCIATED ANOMALIES
    • WHAT IS IT THAT PARENTS WANT TO KNOW?
    • DOES PRENATAL CARDIAC DIAGNOSIS MAKE A DIFFERENCE?
    • REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW ANALYSIS AND FETAL CARDIOVASCULAR WELL-BEING
    • THE PRENATAL EVOLUTION OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • PRENATAL TREATMENT OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE
    • THE CURRENT ROLE OF FETAL ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • FETAL CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS
    • References

    CIRCULATION PHYSIOLOGY

    • PHYSIOLOGY
    • CENTRAL CIRCULATION
    • PULMONARY CIRCULATION
    • MORPHOLOGIC DEVELOPMENT
    • POSTNATAL PERIPHERAL CIRCULATION
    • References

PART VII CONGENITAL CARDIOVASCULAR MALFORMATIONS

    SECTION A SEPTAL DEFECTS

      ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS

      • SECUNDUM ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS
      • SINUS VENOSUS ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECTS
      • CORONARY SINUS ATRIAL SEPTAL DEFECT
      • References

      ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS

      • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      • NOMENCLATURE
      • DEMOGRAPHICS
      • EMBRYOGENESIS
      • PARTIAL ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT
      • COMPLETE ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT
      • REOPERATION AFTER REPAIR OF ATRIOVENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS
      • POSTOPERATIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT
      • References

      VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECTS

      • PREVALENCE
      • PATHOLOGY
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • TREATMENT: MEDICAL THERAPY
      • SURGICAL THERAPY
      • CLINICAL COURSE AND PROGNOSIS
      • References

    SECTION B ARTERIAL ABNORMALITIES

      PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS AND AORTOPULMONARY WINDOW

      • PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
      • PERSISTENT PATENCY
      • CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
      • ANGIOGRAPHY
      • OTHER IMAGING TECHNIQUES
      • CLINICAL DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • COMPLICATIONS
      • TREATMENT
      • ROLE OF THE DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS IN CONGENITAL CARDIAC MALFORMATIONS
      • AORTOPULMONARY WINDOW
      • References

      CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF THE CORONARY VESSELS AND THE AORTIC ROOT

      • CORONARY VASCULAR ANOMALIES
      • ANOMALIES OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN THE ABSENCE OF STRUCTURAL HEART DISEASE
      • RARE CORONARY ANOMALIES
      • MISCELLANEOUS ANOMALIES
      • CORONARY ARTERY PATTERNS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS
      • CONGENITAL ANOMALIES OF THE AORTIC ROOT
      • References

      VASCULAR ANOMALIES

      • EMBRYOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
      • CLASSIFICATION
      • SYSTEMIC ARTERIAL MALFORMATIONS
      • PULMONARY ARTERIAL MALFORMATIONS
      • HEMANGIOMAS
      • References

      AORTIC ARCH ANOMALIES

      • ANATOMICAL CLASSIFICATION
      • LEFT AND RIGHT ARCH DEFINITION
      • CLINICAL CLASSIFICATION
      • NORMAL LEFT AORTIC ARCH AND VARIANTS
      • ABNORMAL LEFT AORTIC ARCH
      • RIGHT AORTIC ARCH
      • CERVICAL AORTIC ARCH
      • DOUBLE AORTIC ARCH
      • PERSISTENT FIFTH AORTIC ARCH
      • INTERRUPTED AORTIC ARCH
      • OTHER ANOMALIES OF THE AORTIC ARCH SYSTEM
      • References

    SECTION C VENOUS ABNORMALITIES

      ANOMALIES OF THE PULMONARY VEINS

      • ANATOMY
      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • PARTIALLY ANOMALOUS PULMONARY VENOUS CONNECTIONS
      • TOTAL ANOMALOUS PULMONARY VENOUS CONNECTION OR DRAINAGE
      • ATRESIA OF THE COMMON PULMONARY VEIN AFTER THE PULMONARY SYSTEMIC CONNECTIONS ARE OBLITERATED
      • STENOSIS OF THE COMMON PULMONARY VEIN
      • ABNORMAL ABSORPTION OF THE COMMON PULMONARY VEIN INTO LEFT ATRIUM
      • References

      ABNORMAL SYSTEMIC VENOUS CONNECTIONS

      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • ANOMALIES OF THE SUPERIOR VENAE CAVAE
      • ANOMALIES OF THE CORONARY SINUS
      • ANOMALIES OF THE INFERIOR VENA CAVA
      • ANOMALIES OF THE DUCTUS VENOSUS
      • PERSISTENT VALVES OF THE SINUS VENOSUS
      • References

    SECTION D TRICUSPID VALVE ABNORMALITIES

      TRICUSPID ATRESIA, STENOSIS, AND REGURGITATION

      • TRICUSPID ATRESIA
      • TRICUSPID STENOSIS
      • EBSTEIN ANOMALY
      • UHL ANOMALY
      • TRICUSPID VALVE INSUFFICIENCY
      • References

    SECTION E RIGHT VENTRICULAR AND PULMONARY OUTFLOW ABNORMALITIES

      PULMONARY STENOSIS

      • ISOLATED VALVAR PULMONARY STENOSIS
      • PULMONARY STENOSIS ASSOCIATED WITH SYSTEMIC DISEASES
      • PRIMARY INFUNDIBULAR STENOSIS
      • RIGHT VENTRICULAR OBSTRUCTION OWING TO ANOMALOUS MUSCLE BUNDLES
      • PERIPHERAL PULMONARY ARTERY STENOSIS WITH INTACT VENTRICULAR SEPTUM
      • References

      PULMONARY ATRESIA AND INTACT VENTRICULAR SEPTUM

      • ROBERT MARK FREEDOM, 1941–2005
      • EPIDEMIOLOGY
      • DEFINITION
      • MORPHOGENESIS
      • PATHOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY
      • CLINICAL FEATURES
      • TREATMENT
      • SUMMARY
      • References

      PULMONARY ATRESIA AND VENTRICULAR SEPTAL DEFECT

      • ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
      • GENETICS
      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • PATHOLOGY
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • NATURAL HISTORY
      • TREATMENT
      • References

      TETRALOGY OF FALLOT

      • HISTORICAL ASPECTS
      • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND GENETICS OF TETRALOGY OF FALLOT (WITH PULMONARY STENOSIS)
      • DEVELOPMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
      • ANATOMY
      • ASSOCIATED ANATOMIC FEATURES
      • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND HEMODYNAMICS
      • CLINICAL FEATURES
      • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
      • POSTOPERATIVE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
      • DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES
      • CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION
      • THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS
      • References

      TRUNCUS ARTERIOSUS

      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • PATHOLOGY
      • MANIFESTATIONS
      • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
      • NATURAL HISTORY
      • TREATMENT
      • SURGICAL CORRECTION
      • LONG-TERM ISSUES
      • References

    SECTION F MITRAL VALVE ABNORMALITIES

      MITRAL INFLOW OBSTRUCTION

      • EMBRYOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION
      • CONGENITAL MITRAL VALVE MALFORMATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH OBSTRUCTION TO LEFT VENTRICULAR INFLOW
      • CONGENITAL MITRAL STENOSIS
      • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF OBSTRUCTIVE MITRAL VALVE DISEASE
      • References

      CONGENITAL MITRAL INSUFFICIENCY

      • ISOLATED CONGENITAL MITRAL INSUFFICIENCY
      • SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY
      • References

      THE FLOPPY MITRAL VALVE, MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, AND MITRAL VALVULAR REGURGITATION

      • WHERE WERE THE CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE IN YESTERYEAR?
      • OBSTACLES TO RATIONAL THINKING ABOUT THE FLOPPY MITRAL VALVE AND MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE
      • FLOPPY MITRAL VALVE, MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, AND MITRAL VALVULAR REGURGITATION
      • IMAGING STUDIES
      • THERAPEUTIC CONSIDERATIONS: FMV/MVP/MVR
      • WHERE ARE THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS WITH FMV/MVP/MVR?
      • THE FMV/MVP/MVR TRIAD IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
      • References

    SECTION G LEFT VENTRICULAR OUTFLOW ABNORMALITIES

      AORTIC STENOSIS

      • VALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS
      • VALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS IN INFANCY
      • SUBVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS
      • SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS
      • References

      COARCTATION OF THE AORTA

      • PREVALENCE AND ETIOLOGY
      • PATHOLOGY
      • EMBRYOLOGY
      • HEMODYNAMICS
      • CLINICAL FEATURES
      • TREATMENT
      • PROGNOSIS
      • References

      HYPOPLASTIC LEFT HEART SYNDROME

      • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND GENETICS
      • THE DEVELOPING FETUS: ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY AND INTERVENTION
      • ANATOMY
      • PRESENTATION, DIAGNOSIS, AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC IMAGING
      • STAGED PALLIATION
      • CARDIAC TRANSPLANTATION
      • NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES AND QUALITY OF LIFE
      • SUMMARY
      • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      • References

    SECTION H ABNORMALITIES OF THE ORIGIN OF THE GREAT ARTERIES

      TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES

      • ANATOMY AND PATHOLOGY
      • PHYSIOLOGY
      • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
      • TREATMENT
      • CORRECTIVE SURGERY
      • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      • References

      CONGENITALLY CORRECTED TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES

      • ROBERT MARK FREEDOM
      • PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, AND MORPHOGENESIS
      • MORPHOLOGY
      • ASSOCIATED LESIONS
      • CORONARY ARTERY ANATOMY
      • CLINICAL FEATURES
      • NATURAL HISTORY AND MANAGEMENT
      • CONVENTIONAL SURGERY AND OUTCOMES
      • CONCLUSION
      • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
      • References

      DOUBLE-OUTLET RIGHT VENTRICLE AND DOUBLE-OUTLET LEFT VENTRICLE

      • DOUBLE-OUTLET RIGHT VENTRICLE
      • DOUBLE-OUTLET LEFT VENTRICLE
      • References

    SECTION I COMPLEX CARDIAC ABNORMALITIES

      UNIVENTRICULAR ATRIOVENTRICULAR CONNECTION

      • TERMINOLOGY
      • VENTRICULAR MORPHOLOGY
      • ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES
      • GREAT ARTERY CONNECTIONS
      • CLINICAL FEATURES
      • ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHIC FEATURES
      • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC FEATURES
      • RADIOLOGIC FEATURES
      • CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION AND ANGIOGRAPHY
      • TREATMENT
      • References

      CARDIAC MALPOSITIONS AND ABNORMALITIES OF ATRIAL AND VISCERAL SITUS

      • DEFINITIONS
      • SEGMENTAL DIAGNOSIS
      • VISCERAL AND ATRIAL SITUS ABNORMALITIES
      • ATRIOVENTRICULAR CONNECTIONS AND ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVE MORPHOLOGY
      • VENTRICULAR SITUS AND MORPHOLOGY
      • GREAT ARTERY RELATIONS
      • DEXTROCARDIA
      • SITUS AMBIGUUS
      • ASPLENIA
      • POLYSPLENIA
      • LEVOCARDIA (ISOLATED LEVOCARDIA)
      • MESOCARDIA
      • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF CARDIAC MALPOSITION
      • TREATMENT
      • CONGENITAL PERICARDIAL DEFECTS
      • ECTOPIA CORDIS
      • References

PART VIII DISEASES OF THE ENDOCARDIUM, MYOCARDIUM, AND PERICARDIUM

    HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY

    • DEFINITION AND NOMENCLATURE
    • PREVALENCE
    • MORPHOLOGY
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • GENETICS
    • CLINICAL SCREENING STRATEGIES IN FAMILIES
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY AND ATHLETE’S HEART
    • PREPARTICIPATION SCREENING FOR HCM IN ATHLETIC POPULATIONS
    • CLINICAL COURSE
    • SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH AND RISK STRATIFICATION
    • MANAGEMENT
    • References

    DILATED CONGESTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY

    • ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES AND TREATMENT
    • References

    MYOCARDITIS

    • ETIOLOGY
    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
    • DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • PATHOLOGY
    • LONG-TERM SEQUELAE
    • SUPPORT FOR VIRAL CAUSE-AND-EFFECT RELATIONSHIP WITH MYOCARDITIS
    • TREATMENT
    • References

    RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY

    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • ETIOLIOGY
    • PATHOLOGY
    • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • CLINICAL PRESENTATION
    • DIAGNOSTIC STUDIES
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • OUTCOME
    • MANAGEMENT
    • References

    THE HEART IN MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES

    • MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES WITH CLINICAL CARDIAC DISEASE
    • ASSESSMENT TOOLS
    • MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES WITH CARDIAC INVOLVEMENT
    • DYSTROPHINOPATHIES: DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
    • DYSTROPHINOPATHIES: BECKER MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
    • DYSTROPHINOPATHIES: X-LINKED CARDIOMYOPATHY
    • MYOTONIC MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
    • EMERY–DREIFUSS MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
    • FACIOSCAPULOHUMERAL MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY
    • LIMB-GIRDLE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES
    • References

    KAWASAKI DISEASE (MUCOCUTANEOUS LYMPH NODE SYNDROME)

    • EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES
    • ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS
    • PATHOLOGY
    • MANIFESTATIONS
    • DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • ALGORITHM FOR CLINICAL EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED INCOMPLETE KAWASAKI DISEASE
    • TREATMENT: ACUTE PHASE
    • TREATMENT: CHRONIC PHASE
    • References

    RHEUMATIC FEVER AND RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE

    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • PATHOLOGY
    • CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
    • CHRONIC RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE
    • TREATMENT
    • SURGERY
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    INFLAMMATORY NONINFECTIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    • SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS
    • JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
    • TAKAYASU ARTERITIS
    • SYSTEMIC JUVENILE POLYARTERITIS NODOSA
    • References

    PERICARDIAL DISEASES

    • ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
    • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PERICARDIAL DISEASE
    • DRAINAGE OF PERICARDIAL FLUID
    • ACUTE PERICARDITIS
    • INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF THE PERICARDIUM
    • NONINFECTIOUS CAUSES OF ACUTE PERICARDITIS
    • CHRONIC PERICARDITIS
    • RECURRENT PERICARDITIS
    • CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS
    • MISCELLANEOUS CAUSES OF PERICARDIAL EFFUSION
    • CONGENITAL PERICARDIAL DEFECTS
    • References

    INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

    • EPIDEMIOLOGY
    • MICRO-ORGANISMS
    • PATHOGENESIS
    • CLINICAL FEATURES
    • LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS
    • ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY
    • DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
    • ANTIMICROBIAL THERAPY
    • PROPHYLAXIS
    • References

    MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA

    • DEFINITION
    • HISTORY
    • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
    • EXAMINATION
    • ELECTROCARDIOGRAM
    • BIOMARKERS OF MYOCARDIAL INJURY
    • CARDIAC IMAGING AND STRESS TESTING
    • TREATMENT
    • SUMMARY
    • References

PART IX PULMONARY VASCULAR DISEASE

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    • HEART DEFECTS WITH INCREASED PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW
    • HEART DEFECTS WITH INCREASED PULMONARY VENOUS PRESSURE
    • HEART DEFECTS WITH DECREASED PULMONARY BLOOD FLOW
    • HYPOXIA-INDUCED PULMONARY VASCULAR DISEASE
    • CHRONIC HYPOXIA
    • LUNG DISEASE
    • UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION
    • DISORDERS OF THE CHEST WALL
    • PERSISTENT PULMONARY HYPERTENSION OF THE NEWBORN
    • THROMBOEMBOLIC DISEASES
    • SICKLE CELL DISEASE AND OTHER HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES
    • PORTAL HYPERTENSION
    • GRANULOMATOUS AND COLLAGEN VASCULAR DISEASES
    • DRUGS AND TOXINS
    • IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HYPERTENSION
    • References

    CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

    • DEFINITION
    • PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
    • NATURAL HISTORY
    • PRESENTATION AND DIAGNOSIS
    • CORRECTIVE CARDIAC SURGERY
    • MEDICAL AND SURGICAL THERAPY FOR PULMONARY VASCULAR OBSTRUCTIVE DISEASE
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

PART X THE YOUNG ADULT WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    THE ADOLESCENT AND ADULT WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    • LEFT-SIDED LESIONS
    • LEFT-TO-RIGHT SHUNTING LESIONS
    • OTHER VALVE ABNORMALITIES
    • SINGLE VENTRICLE
    • UNIQUENESS OF AN ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT CARDIAC CLINIC
    • References

    THERAPEUTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION IN ADULTS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    • TRANSCATHETER MANAGEMENT OF ADULT COARCTATION
    • TRANSCATHETER THERAPY AFTER ATRIAL SWITCH
    • IMPORTANT CONSIDERATIONS OF OTHER TRANSCATHETER PROCEDURES PERFORMED IN THE ADULT
    • PULMONARY REGURGITATION AND PULMONARY ARTERY REHABILITATION
    • SUMMARY
    • References

    IMAGING MODALITIES FOR ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    • MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUES
    • COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
    • ANATOMY
    • BICUSPID AORTIC VALVE
    • COARCTATION OF THE AORTA
    • TETRALOGY OF FALLOT
    • TETRALOGY OF FALLOT/PULMONARY ATRESIA
    • DOUBLE-OUTLET RIGHT VENTRICLE
    • TRANSPOSITION OF THE GREAT ARTERIES
    • TOTAL ANOMALOUS PULMONARY VENOUS RETURN
    • SINGLE VENTRICLE
    • PREGNANCY
    • CORONARY ARTERY ANATOMY
    • References

    ADULT CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE: LESION SPECIFIC PATHWAYS

    • HISTORY
    • RISK FACTORS
    • DIAGNOSTIC TESTING
    • CONCLUSIONS
    • References

    PHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANCY IN THE YOUNG ADULT WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE

    • PHYSIOLOGIC CHANGES DURING PREGNANCY
    • CARDIAC EXAMINATION FINDINGS IN NORMAL PREGNANCY
    • MATERNAL AND FETAL RISK: GLOBAL RISKS ASSESSMENT
    • MATERNAL AND FETAL RISK: LESION-SPECIFIC OUTCOMES
    • CARDIAC DISEASE IN OFFSPRING
    • MANAGEMENT ISSUES DURING PREGNANCY
    • MANAGEMENT ISSUES DURING LABOR AND DELIVERY
    • CONTRACEPTION
    • References

PART XI OTHER SPECIAL PROBLEMS AND ISSUES

    CHEST PAIN IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    • TYPES OF CHEST CAGE AND CHEST WALL PAIN
    • LESS COMMON CAUSES OF CHEST PAIN
    • MEDICAL EVALUATION
    • TREATMENT
    • OUTCOME
    • References

    CORONARY RISK FACTORS IN CHILDREN

    • A. ATHEROSCLEROSIS
    • B. LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS
    • C. HYPERTENSION

    CARDIAC TUMORS

    • HISTORY OF CARDIAC TUMORS
    • INCIDENCE
    • DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
    • RHABDOMYOMAS
    • FIBROMAS
    • MYXOMAS
    • INTRAPERICARDIAL TERATOMAS
    • OTHER PRIMARY BENIGN MYOCARDIAL TUMORS
    • PRIMARY MALIGNANT MYOCARDIAL TUMORS
    • SECONDARY CARDIAC TUMORS
    • References

    CHRONIC CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE

    • ETIOLOGY OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE IN CHILDREN
    • TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE
    • DEVICE THERAPY FOR HEART FAILURE
    • References

    NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES AFTER HEART SURGERY IN CHILDREN

    • GENETIC ABNORMALITIES
    • BRAIN ANATOMY, PATHOLOGY, AND NEUROIMAGING
    • PERIOPERATIVE RISK FACTORS
    • OTHER CAUSES OF NEUROLOGIC MORBIDITY
    • LONG-TERM NEURODEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME
    • CONCLUSION
    • References

    HEMATOLOGIC ASPECTS OF PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY

    • NORMAL DEVELOPMENT
    • HEMATOLOGIC DISORDERS
    • Selected Readings