HUMAN VIROLOGY This title has been archived.

Author: Leslie Collier, John Oxford
Affiliation: University of London
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication Date: 2006
ISBN 10: 0198566603
ISBN 13: 9780198566601
Edition: 3rd

Description:

This third edition includes major revisions, and integrates the interface between science and medicine more than it did previously. It includes new material on SARS and the latest advances in the study of Prion diseases. A brief but comprehensive introduction to the fascinating subject of virology. Eminently suitable for medical, dental and bioscience students; the third edition of Human Virology builds on the success of the previous editions with new material included on SARS, Prion diseases and hepatitis. Virology is a fascinating subject, with viruses inhabiting a twilight world somewhere in-between the animate and inanimate. Viruses are essentially intracellular parasites, unable to reproduce themselves outside living cells. Virology is a relatively new science, having to await the invention of the electron microscope before real progress in elucidating the viral structure and function could be made. The third edition of Collier and Oxford's Human Virology builds on the strengths of the previous editions. Students are often overwhelmed with information, and this book acknowledges this fact by presenting factual information in a user-friendly and accessible format which piques student interest and painlessly encourages retention of facts. The authors' intent is not to turn their readers into virologists but rather to provide them with enough knowledge of the nature of viruses andvirus infections to serve as an essential background for later involvement with the subject.The new edition has been extensively updated, with many new diagrams included.New material has been added on:· Plant and bacterial viruses.· Coronaviruses, focusing on SARS.· Monkeypox infections in humans and the possible use of smallpox as a biological weapon.· Latest advances on chemotherapy of herpesviruses.· Updated material on Prion diseases, focusing on new variant CJD.· New material on the debate between MMR versus single vaccine. A brief but comprehensive int

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • COPYRIGHT
  • Disclaimer
  • Preface to the second edition
  • Preface to the third edition
  • Abbreviations

Part 1 General principles

    Virology: how it all began

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  How viruses were discovered
    • 3  How they were grown in the laboratory
    • 4  Sizes and shapes
    • 5  Replication
    • 6  The control of viral diseases
    • 7  Conclusions

    General properties of viruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  The architecture of viruses
    • 3  Classification of viruses
    • 4  The nomenclature of viruses
    • 5  The range of diseases caused by viruses
    • 6  Reminders

    Viral replication and genetics

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  The molecular biology of the mammalian cell
    • 3  Virus infection and replication in a host cell
    • 4  Virus assembly, release from the host cell, and maturation
    • 5  Genetic variation of viruses
    • 6  Reminders

    How viruses cause disease

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Viral factors: pathogenicity and virulence
    • 3  Interactions between viruses and host cells
    • 4  The spread of viruses in the host
    • 5  Patterns of disease
    • 6  Shedding of virus from the host
    • 7  How infectious is a virus?
    • 8  Reminders

    Resistance to virus infections

    • 1  Introduction: innate and adaptive immunity
    • 2  General factors in resistance
    • 3  Local non-specific defences
    • 4  The adaptive immune system
    • 5  T cells and cell-mediated immunity
    • 6  Harmful immune responses
    • 7  Resistance and recovery
    • 8  Reminders

    Viruses and cancer in humans

    • 1  Historical note
    • 2  General features of viral oncogenesis
    • 3  Viral oncogenes
    • 4  Cellular oncogenes
    • 5  Indirect mechanisms
    • 6  Viruses implicated in cancers of humans
    • 7  Reminders

    Viruses and the community

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Definitions
    • 3  What use is epidemiology?
    • 4  Epidemiological methods
    • 5  Serological epidemiology
    • 6  Factors in the spread of viral infections
    • 7  Herd immunity
    • 8  Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs)
    • 9  The periodicity of epidemics
    • 10  Control measures
    • 11  Reminders

Part 2 Special infections

    Upper respiratory tract and eye infections due to adenoviruses, coronaviruses (including SARS CoV), and rhinoviruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Adenoviruses
    • 3  Coronaviruses
    • 4  Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS CoV)
    • 5  Rhinoviruses
    • 6  Reminders

    Childhood infections caused by paramyxoviruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the Paramyxoviridae
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects of paramyxovirus infections
    • 4  Reminders

    Orthomyxoviruses and influenza

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the orthomyxoviruses
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects
    • 4  Prevention and cure
    • 5  Reminders

    Gastroenteritis viruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Rotaviruses
    • 3  Adenoviruses
    • 4  Caliciviruses
    • 5  Astroviruses
    • 6  Laboratory diagnosis
    • 7  Reminders

    Rubella: postnatal infections

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the virus
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects
    • 4  Reminders

    Parvoviruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the viruses
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects
    • 4  Reminders

    Poxviruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the viruses
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects of smallpox
    • 4  Other poxvirus infections
    • 5  Reminders

    Papovaviruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the viruses
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects of papillomavirus infections
    • 4  Clinical and pathological aspects of polyomavirus infections
    • 5  Reminders

    Poliomyelitis and other picornavirus infections

    • 1  Properties of the viruses
    • 2  Clinical and pathological aspects
    • 3  Control measures
    • 4  Reminders

    The herpesviruses: general properties

    • 1  Classification
    • 2  Morphology
    • 3  Genome
    • 4  Polypeptides
    • 5  Antigens
    • 6  Replication
    • 7  Reminders

    The alphaherpesviruses: herpes simplex and varicella-zoster

    • 1  Herpes simplex viruses
    • 2  Varicella-zoster virus
    • 3  Herpesvirus B
    • 4  Reminders

    The betaherpesviruses: cytomegalovirus and human herpesviruses 6 and

    • 1  Cytomegalovirus
    • 2  Human herpesviruses types 6 and 7
    • 3  Reminders

    The gammaherpesviruses: Epstein–Barr virus and Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus

    • 1  Epstein–Barr virus
    • 2  Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8)
    • 3  Reminders

    Introduction to the hepatitis viruses

    • 1  Hepatitis A
    • 2  Hepatitis B and deltavirus
    • 3  Hepatitis C
    • 4  Other hepatitis viruses

    The blood-borne hepatitis viruses B and delta

    • 1  Properties of hepatitis B virus
    • 2  Clinical and pathological aspects of hepatitis B virus infections
    • 3  Properties of delta virus
    • 4  Clinical and pathological aspects of hepatitis delta virus infections
    • 5  Reminders

    The enteric hepatitis viruses A and E

    • 1  Properties of hepatitis A virus
    • 2  Clinical and pathological aspects of hepatitis A virus infections
    • 3  Reminders
    • 4  Properties of hepatitis E virus
    • 5  Clinical and pathological aspects of hepatitis E virus infections
    • 6  Reminders

    The blood-borne hepatitis flaviviruses

    • 1  Properties of hepatitis C virus
    • 2  Clinical and pathological aspects of hepatitis C virus infections
    • 3  The GBV viruses
    • 4  Reminders

    Retroviruses and AIDS

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of HIV
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects of HIV
    • 4  The discovery of the other human retroviruses HTLV-I and HTLV-II
    • 5  Reminders

    Lyssavirus and rabies

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the virus
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects
    • 4  Reminders

    Arthropod-borne viruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Properties of the viruses
    • 3  Clinical and pathological aspects of arbovirus infections
    • 4  Reminders

    Exotic and dangerous infections: filoviruses, arenaviruses, and hantaviruses

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Filoviruses
    • 3  Arenaviruses
    • 4  Hantaviruses
    • 5  Risk categories
    • 6  Reminders

    Prions and the spongiform encephalopathies

    • 1  Prion diseases
    • 2  What are prions?
    • 3  Pathogenesis and pathology
    • 4  Laboratory diagnosis
    • 5  Safety measures
    • 6  The great bovine spongiform encephalopathy outbreak
    • 7  Reminders

Part 3 Special syndromes

    Viral diseases of the central nervous system

    • 1  Acute infections (Group 1) (Table 30.2)
    • 2  Acute postexposure syndromes (Group 2) (Table 30.3)
    • 3  Chronic infections (Group 3) (Table 30.4)
    • 4  Laboratory diagnosis
    • 5  Reminders

    Intrauterine and perinatal infections

    • 1  Pathogenesis
    • 2  Fetal immunity
    • 3  Specific infections
    • 4  Reminders

    Viral infections in patients with defective immunity

    • 1  Introduction
    • 2  Primary immunodeficiencies
    • 3  Acquired immunodeficiencies secondary to other diseases and their treatment (Table 32.3)
    • 4  Some special problems (Table 32.5)
    • 5  Diagnosis and treatment
    • 6  Reminders

    Respiratory infections

      Sexually transmitted viral infections

        Resurgent and emergent viral infections

        • 1  Introduction
        • 2  Factors favouring the resurgence of old enemies
        • 3  The emergence of new enemies
        • 4  Reminders

      Part 4 Practical aspects

        The laboratory diagnosis of viral infections

        • 1  Introduction
        • 2  Collecting and sending clinical specimens to the laboratory
        • 3  Rapid diagnostic methods
        • 4  Virus isolation in cell cultures
        • 5  Detection of antiviral antibodies
        • 6  Reminders

        Control of viral diseases by immunization

        • 1  The technology and practicalities of virus vaccine production and development
        • 2  Virus vaccines and public health
        • 3  Passive immunization
        • 4  New approaches to vaccine development
        • 5  Reminders

        Antiviral chemotherapy

        • 1  Points of action of antivirals in the virus life cycle
        • 2  The use of antivirals: general considerations
        • 3  Herpes infections
        • 4  Influenza
        • 5  HIV infections
        • 6  Interferons
        • 7  The future
        • 8  Reminders

      Appendices

        Appendix A Safety precautions: codes of practice, disinfection, and sterilization

        Appendix B Viral infections notifiable in the UK

        Appendix C Suggestions for further reading