HARRISON'S MANUAL OF MEDICINE This title has been archived.

Author: Dennis Kasper, MD, Eugene Braunwald, MD, Anthony Fauci, MD, Stephen Hauser, MD, Dan Longo, MD, J.Larry Jameson, MD, PhD
Affiliation: Harvard Medical School, Boston MA
Publisher: McGraw-Hill
Publication Date: 2005
ISBN 10: 0071444416
ISBN 13: 9780071444415
Edition: 1st

Description:

The authority of Harrison's at the point of care! Covering the full scope of internal medicine, the new edition of this mini-textbook is thoroughly revised to reflect new content areas and quicker retrieval of clinical information. The manual continues to focus on diagnosis and therapy with an emphasis on patient care. Features a new section on Care of the Hospitalized Patient, with a new chapter on Procedures in Internal Medicine as well as a section on patient admittance orders.

Table of Contents

Front Matter

  • ABOUT
  • EDITORS
  • NOTICE
  • CONTRIBUTORS
  • PREFACE

SECTION 1 CARE OF THE HOSPITALIZED PATIENT

    1: INITIAL EVALUATION AND ADMISSION ORDERS FOR THE GENERAL MEDICINE PATIENT

      2: ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS

      • Malnutrition

      3: ELECTROLYTES/ACID-BASE BALANCE

      • SODIUM
      • POTASSIUM
      • ACID-BASE DISORDERS (See Fig. 3-2)

      4: ENTERAL AND PARENTERAL NUTRITION

      • Enteral Nutrition
      • Parenteral Nutrition
      • Specific Micronutrient Deficiency

      5: TRANSFUSION AND PHERESIS THERAPY

      • TRANSFUSIONS
      • THERAPEUTIC HEMAPHERESIS

      6: PRINCIPLES OF CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE

      • Approach to the Critically Ill Patient
      • Shock (See Chap. 14)
      • Mechanical Ventilatory Support
      • Respiratory Failure
      • Multiorgan System Failure
      • Monitoring in the ICU
      • Prevention of Complications
      • Limitation or Withdrawal of Care

      7: RESPIRATORY FAILURE

      • Definition and Classification
      • Pathophysiology
      • Clinical Evaluation

      8: PAIN AND ITS MANAGEMENT

      • Organization of Pain Pathways (See HPIM-16, Figs. 11-1 and 11-4.)
      • Evaluation
      • Chronic Pain

      9: PROCEDURES COMMONLY PERFORMED BY INTERNISTS

      • THORACENTESIS
      • LUMBAR PUNCTURE
      • PARACENTESIS

      10: DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING IN INTERNAL MEDICINE

      • Chest Radiography
      • Abdominal Radiography
      • Ultrasound
      • Computed Tomography
      • Magnetic Resonance Imaging

      11: MEDICAL EVALUATION OF THE SURGICAL PATIENT

      • GOAL
      • CARDIAC RISK ASSESSMENT
      • PREOPERATIVE PULMONARY EVALUATION

    SECTION 2 MEDICAL EMERGENCIES

      12: ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME (ARDS)

      • Definition and Etiology
      • Clinical Course and Pathophysiology
      • Outcomes

      13: CARDIOVASCULAR COLLAPSE AND SUDDEN DEATH

      • Management of Cardiac Arrest
      • Follow-up

      14: SHOCK

      • Definition
      • Clinical Manifestations
      • Physical Examination
      • Laboratory
      • SEPTIC SHOCK

      15: SEPSIS AND SEPTIC SHOCK

      • Definitions
      • Etiology
      • Epidemiology and Risk Factors
      • Pathogenesis and Pathology
      • Clinical Features
      • Diagnosis
      • Prognosis
      • Prevention

      16: ACUTE PULMONARY EDEMA

      • Physical Findings
      • Laboratory

      17: CONFUSION, STUPOR, AND COMA

      • History
      • Immediate Assessment
      • Neurologic Evaluation
      • Radiologic Examination
      • Brain Death

      18: STROKE

      • Clinical Presentation
      • Determining the Cause of Stroke
      • Primary and Secondary Prevention of Stroke

      19: SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE

        20: INCREASED INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE AND HEAD TRAUMA

        • Increased Intracranial Pressure
        • Head Trauma

        21: HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

        • Clinical Manifestations

        22: STATUS EPILEPTICUS

        • Etiology
        • Prognosis

        23: POISONING AND DRUG OVERDOSE

        • DIAGNOSIS
        • SPECIFIC POISONS

        24: DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AND HYPEROSMOLAR COMA

        • DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS
        • HYPERGLYCEMIC HYPEROSMOLAR STATE

        25: HYPOGLYCEMIA

        • Etiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis

        26: INFECTIOUS DISEASE EMERGENCIES

        • General Considerations
        • Specific Presentations (Table 26-1)

        27: ONCOLOGIC EMERGENCIES

        • STRUCTURAL/OBSTRUCTIVE ONCOLOGIC EMERGENCIES
        • EMERGENT PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES
        • TREATMENT COMPLICATIONS

        28: ANAPHYLAXIS

        • Definition
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Diagnosis
        • Prevention

        29: BITES, VENOMS, STINGS, AND MARINE POISONINGS

        • MAMMALIAN BITES
        • VENOMOUS SNAKEBITES
        • MARINE ENVENOMATIONS
        • MARINE POISONINGS
        • ARTHROPOD BITES AND STINGS

        30: HYPOTHERMIA AND FROSTBITE

        • HYPOTHERMIA
        • FROSTBITE

        31: BIOTERRORISM

        • MICROBIAL BIOTERRORISM
        • CHEMICAL BIOTERRORISM
        • RADIATION BIOTERRORISM

      SECTION 3 COMMON PATIENT PRESENTATIONS

        32: CHEST PAIN

        • POTENTIALLY SERIOUS CAUSES
        • LESS SERIOUS CAUSES
        • OTHER CAUSES

        33: ABDOMINAL PAIN

        • ACUTE, CATASTROPHIC ABDOMINAL PAIN

        34: HEADACHE

        • Evaluation
        • Migraine
        • Other Headaches
        • Facial Pain

        35: BACK AND NECK PAIN

        • LOW BACK PAIN
        • NECK AND SHOULDER PAIN

        36: FEVER, HYPERTHERMIA, CHILLS, AND RASH

        • FEVER
        • HYPERTHERMIA

        37: PAIN OR SWELLING OF JOINTS

        • Goals for the Initial Assessment of a Musculoskeletal Complaint
        • Historic Features
        • Physical Examination
        • Laboratory Investigations
        • Diagnostic Imaging
        • Special Considerations in the Elderly Patient

        38: SYNCOPE AND FAINTNESS

        • Features Distinguishing Syncope from Seizure
        • Etiology

        39: DIZZINESS AND VERTIGO

        • Faintness
        • Vertigo

        40: ACUTE VISUAL LOSS AND DOUBLE VISION

        • Clinical Assessment
        • Transient or Sudden Visual Loss
        • Double Vision (Diplopia)

        41: PARALYSIS AND MOVEMENT DISORDERS

        • PARALYSIS OR WEAKNESS
        • MOVEMENT DISORDERS

        42: APHASIAS AND RELATED DISORDERS

        • Wernicke’s Aphasia
        • Broca’s Aphasia
        • Global Aphasia
        • Conduction Aphasia
        • Laboratory Studies in Aphasia

        43: SLEEP DISORDERS

        • Insomnia
        • Hypersomnias (Disorders of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness)
        • Disorders of Circadian Rhythmicity

        44: DYSPNEA

        • Definition
        • Causes

        45: COUGH AND HEMOPTYSIS

        • COUGH
        • HEMOPTYSIS

        46: CYANOSIS

        • Central Cyanosis
        • Peripheral Cyanosis

        47: EDEMA

        • Definition

        48: NAUSEA, VOMITING, AND INDIGESTION

        • NAUSEA AND VOMITING
        • INDIGESTION

        49: WEIGHT LOSS

        • Etiology
        • Clinical Features

        50: DYSPHAGIA

        • DYSPHAGIA
        • NONCARDIAC CHEST PAIN
        • ESOPHAGEAL MOTILITY DISORDERS
        • ESOPHAGEAL INFLAMMATION

        51: ACUTE ABDOMEN

        • Acute, Catastrophic Abdominal Pain

        52: DIARRHEA, CONSTIPATION, AND MALABSORPTION

        • NORMAL GASTROINTESTINAL FUNCTION
        • DIARRHEA
        • MALABSORPTION SYNDROMES
        • CONSTIPATION

        53: GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

        • PRESENTATION
        • UPPER GI BLEEDING
        • LOWER GI BLEEDING

        54: JAUNDICE AND EVALUATION OF LIVER FUNCTION

        • JAUNDICE
        • HEPATOMEGALY
        • BLOOD TESTS OF LIVER FUNCTION
        • HEPATOBILIARY IMAGING PROCEDURES

        55: ASCITES

        • Definition
        • Detection
        • Evaluation
        • CIRRHOTIC ASCITES

        56: AZOTEMIA AND URINARY ABNORMALITIES

        • ABNORMALITIES OF RENAL FUNCTION, AZOTEMIA
        • ABNORMALITIES OF URINE VOLUME
        • ABNORMALITIES OF URINE COMPOSITION

        57: ANEMIA AND POLYCYTHEMIA

        • ANEMIA
        • POLYCYTHEMIA (ERYTHROCYTOSIS)

        58: LYMPHADENOPATHY AND SPLENOMEGALY

        • LYMPHADENOPATHY
        • SPLENOMEGALY

      SECTION 4 DISORDERS OF THE EYE, EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT

        59: COMMON DISORDERS OF VISION AND HEARING

        • DISORDERS OF THE EYE
        • HEARING DISORDERS

        60: INFECTIONS OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

        • NONSPECIFIC URIs
        • SINUS INFECTIONS
        • INFECTIONS OF THE EAR AND MASTOID
        • INFECTIONS OF THE PHARYNX AND ORAL CAVITY
        • INFECTIONS OF THE LARYNX AND EPIGLOTTIS
        • INFECTIONS OF DEEP NECK STRUCTURES

      SECTION 5 DERMATOLOGY

        61: GENERAL EXAMINATION OF THE SKIN

        • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
        • HISTORY
        • ADDITIONAL DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

        62: COMMON SKIN CONDITIONS

        • PAPULOSQUAMOUS DISORDERS
        • ECZEMATOUS DISORDERS
        • INFECTIONS
        • ACNE
        • VASCULAR DISORDERS
        • CUTANEOUS DRUG REACTIONS

      SECTION 6 HEMATOLOGY AND ONCOLOGY

        63: EXAMINATION OF BLOOD SMEARS AND BONE MARROW

        • BLOOD SMEARS
        • BONE MARROW

        64: RED BLOOD CELL DISORDERS

        • HYPOPROLIFERATIVE ANEMIAS
        • MATURATION DISORDERS
        • ANEMIA DUE TO RBC DESTRUCTION OR ACUTE BLOOD LOSS

        65: LEUKOCYTOSIS AND LEUKOPENIA

        • LEUKOCYTOSIS
        • LEUKOPENIA

        66: BLEEDING AND THROMBOTIC DISORDERS

        • BLEEDING DISORDERS
        • THROMBOTIC DISORDERS

        67: PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION OF CANCER

        • CANCER PREVENTION IN HIGH-RISK GROUPS

        68: CANCER CHEMOTHERAPY

        • BIOLOGY OF TUMOR GROWTH
        • DEVELOPMENT OF DRUG RESISTANCE
        • CATEGORIES OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS AND MAJOR TOXICITIES
        • COMPLICATIONS OF THERAPY
        • MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE TOXICITIES

        69: MYELOID LEUKEMIAS, MYELODYSPLASIA, AND MYELOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROMES

        • ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA
        • CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA
        • MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES (MDS)
        • MYELOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROMES

        70: LYMPHOID MALIGNANCIES

        • CHRONIC LYMPHOID LEUKEMIAS/LYMPHOMAS
        • INDOLENT LYMPHOMAS
        • AGGRESSIVE LYMPHOMAS
        • ACUTE LYMPHOID LEUKEMIAS/LYMPHOMAS
        • PLASMA CELL DISORDERS

        71: SKIN CANCER

        • MALIGNANT MELANOMA
        • BASAL CELL CARCINOMA (BCC)
        • SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA (SCC)
        • SKIN CANCER PREVENTION

        72: HEAD AND NECK CANCER

        • Incidence and Epidemiology
        • Pathology
        • Genetic Alterations
        • Clinical Presentation
        • Prevention

        73: LUNG CANCER

        • Incidence
        • Histologic Classification
        • Etiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Staging
        • Prognosis

        74: BREAST CANCER

        • Incidence and Epidemiology
        • Genetics
        • Diagnosis
        • Staging

        75: TUMORS OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT

        • ESOPHAGEAL CARCINOMA
        • GASTRIC CARCINOMA
        • BENIGN GASTRIC TUMORS
        • SMALL-BOWEL TUMORS
        • COLONIC POLYPS
        • COLORECTAL CANCER
        • BENIGN LIVER TUMORS
        • HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA
        • PANCREATIC CANCER
        • ENDOCRINE TUMORS OF THE GI TRACT AND PANCREAS

        76: GENITOURINARY TRACT CANCER

        • BLADDER CANCER
        • RENAL CANCER
        • TESTICULAR CANCER

        77: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER

        • OVARIAN CANCER
        • ENDOMETRIAL CANCER
        • CERVICAL CANCER

        78: PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA AND CARCINOMA

        • PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA
        • PROSTATE CARCINOMA

        79: CANCER OF UNKNOWN PRIMARY SITE

        • Syndrome of Unrecognized Extragonadal Germ Cell Cancer
        • Peritoneal Carcinomatosis in Women
        • Carcinoma in an Axillary Lymph Node in Women
        • Osteoblastic Bone Metastases in Men
        • Cervical Lymph Node Metastases

        80: PARANEOPLASTIC ENDOCRINE SYNDROMES

        • Hypercalcemia
        • Hyponatremia
        • Ectopic ACTH Syndrome

        81: NEUROLOGIC PARANEOPLASTIC SYNDROMES

        • PNDs of the Central Nervous System and Dorsal Root Ganglia
        • PNDs of Nerve and Muscle

      SECTION 7 INFECTIOUS DISEASES

        82: DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES

        • BACTERIA, FUNGI, AND VIRUSES
        • PARASITES

        83: ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPY

        • PRINCIPLES OF ANTIBACTERIAL CHEMOTHERAPY
        • MECHANISMS OF DRUG ACTION
        • MECHANISMS OF ANTIBACTERIAL RESISTANCE
        • SPECIFIC CLASSES OF ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS

        84: IMMUNIZATION AND ADVICE TO TRAVELERS

        • IMMUNIZATION
        • ADVICE FOR TRAVELERS

        85: INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS

        • Epidemiology
        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Prevention

        86: INTRAABDOMINAL INFECTIONS

        • PERITONITIS
        • INTRAPERITONEAL ABSCESSES

        87: INFECTIOUS DIARRHEAS

        • NONINFLAMMATORY DIARRHEA
        • INFLAMMATORY DIARRHEAS

        88: SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES AND REPRODUCTIVE TRACT INFECTIONS

        • GENERAL CLINICAL APPROACH
        • SPECIFIC SYNDROMES
        • INDIVIDUAL PATHOGENS

        89: INFECTIONS OF THE SKIN, SOFT TISSUES, JOINTS, AND BONES

        • SKIN AND SOFT TISSUE INFECTIONS
        • INFECTIOUS ARTHRITIS
        • OSTEOMYELITIS

        90: INFECTIONS IN THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST

        • INFECTIONS IN CANCER PTS
        • INFECTIONS IN TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS
        • IMMUNIZATIONS IN IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PATIENTS

        91: HIV INFECTION AND AIDS

        • Definition
        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathophysiology and Immunopathogenesis
        • Immune Abnormalities in HIV Disease
        • Immune Response to HIV Infection
        • Diagnosis of HIV Infection
        • Laboratory Monitoring of Patients with HIV Infection
        • Clinical Manifestations of HIV Infection
        • HIV and the Health Care Worker
        • Vaccines
        • Prevention

        92: HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

        • Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections
        • Nosocomial and Device-Related Infections
        • Epidemic and Emerging Problems

        93: PNEUMOCOCCAL INFECTIONS

        • Etiology
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Specific Infections
        • Prevention

        94: STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTIONS

        • Etiology
        • S. aureus Infections
        • Infections Caused by Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci (CoNS)

        95: STREPTOCOCCAL/ENTEROCOCCAL INFECTIONS, DIPHTHERIA, AND OTHER CORYNEBACTERIAL INFECTIONS

        • STREPTOCOCCAL/ENTEROCOCCAL INFECTIONS
        • DIPHTHERIA
        • OTHER CORYNEBACTERIAL INFECTIONS

        96: MENINGOCOCCAL AND LISTERIAL INFECTIONS

        • MENINGOCOCCAL INFECTIONS
        • LISTERIAL INFECTIONS

        97: INFECTIONS CAUSED BY HAEMOPHILUS, BORDETELLA, MORAXELLA, AND HACEK GROUP ORGANISMS

        • HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE
        • PERTUSSIS
        • MORAXELLA CATARRHALIS
        • THE HACEK GROUP

        98: DISEASES CAUSED BY GRAM-NEGATIVE ENTERIC BACTERIA, PSEUDOMONAS, AND LEGIONELLA

        • INFECTIONS CAUSED BY GRAM-NEGATIVE ENTERIC BACTERIA
        • Extraintestinal Pathogens
        • INFECTIONS DUE TO PSEUDOMONAS AND RELATED SPECIES
        • LEGIONELLA INFECTIONS

        99: INFECTIONS CAUSED BY OTHER GRAM-NEGATIVE BACILLI

        • BRUCELLOSIS
        • TULAREMIA
        • PLAGUE
        • BARTONELLA INFECTIONS

        100: ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

        • TETANUS
        • BOTULISM
        • OTHER CLOSTRIDIAL INFECTIONS
        • MIXED ANAEROBIC INFECTIONS

        101: NOCARDIOSIS AND ACTINOMYCOSIS

        • NOCARDIOSIS
        • ACTINOMYCOSIS

        102: TUBERCULOSIS AND OTHER MYCOBACTERIAL INFECTIONS

        • TUBERCULOSIS
        • LEPROSY
        • INFECTIONS WITH NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA (NTM)

        103: LYME DISEASE AND OTHER NONSYPHILITIC SPIROCHETAL INFECTIONS

        • LYME BORRELIOSIS
        • ENDEMIC TREPONEMATOSES
        • LEPTOSPIROSIS
        • RELAPSING FEVER

        104: RICKETTSIAL DISEASES

        • TICK- AND MITE-BORNE SPOTTED FEVERS
        • FLEA- AND LOUSE-BORNE TYPHUS GROUP RICKETTSIOSES
        • EHRLICHIOSES AND ANAPLASMOSIS
        • Q FEVER

        105: MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS

        • M. pneumoniae
        • Genital Mycoplasmas

        106: CHLAMYDIAL INFECTIONS

        • C. TRACHOMATIS INFECTIONS
        • C. PSITTACI INFECTIONS
        • C. PNEUMONIAE INFECTIONS

        107: HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS

        • HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUSES
        • VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS
        • HUMAN HERPESVIRUS (HHV) TYPES 6, 7, AND 8

        108: CYTOMEGALOVIRUS AND EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS INFECTIONS

        • CYTOMEGALOVIRUS (CMV)
        • EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS (EBV)

        109: INFLUENZA AND OTHER VIRAL RESPIRATORY DISEASES

        • INFLUENZA
        • OTHER COMMON VIRAL RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS

        110: RUBEOLA, RUBELLA, MUMPS, AND PARVOVIRUS INFECTIONS

        • MEASLES (RUBEOLA)
        • RUBELLA (GERMAN MEASLES)
        • MUMPS
        • PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

        111: ENTEROVIRAL INFECTIONS

        • Etiology
        • Pathogenesis and Immunity
        • Epidemiology
        • Clinical Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Prevention

        112: INSECT- AND ANIMAL-BORNE VIRAL INFECTIONS

        • RABIES
        • INFECTIONS CAUSED BY ARTHROPOD- AND RODENT- BORNE VIRUSES
        • EBOLA AND MARBURG VIRUS INFECTIONS

        113: FUNGAL INFECTIONS

        • GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
        • ANTIFUNGAL TREATMENTS
        • CANDIDIASIS
        • ASPERGILLOSIS
        • CRYPTOCOCCOSIS
        • MUCORMYCOSIS
        • HISTOPLASMOSIS
        • COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS
        • BLASTOMYCOSIS
        • PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS
        • PENICILLIOSIS MARNEFFEI
        • FUSARIOSIS
        • MALASSEZIA INFECTION
        • PSEUDALLESCHERIASIS
        • SPOROTRICHOSIS
        • DERMATOPHYTOSIS

        114: PNEUMOCYSTIS INFECTION

        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical and Laboratory Features
        • Diagnosis
        • Course and Prognosis
        • Prevention

        115: PROTOZOAL INFECTIONS

        • MALARIA
        • BABESIOSIS
        • LEISHMANIASIS
        • TRYPANOSOMIASIS
        • TOXOPLASMOSIS

        116: HELMINTHIC INFECTIONS

        • NEMATODES
        • TREMATODES
        • CESTODES
        • ECTOPARASITES

      SECTION 8 CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

        117: PHYSICAL EXAMINATION OF THE HEART

        • AUSCULTATION

        118: ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

        • STANDARD APPROACH TO THE ECG
        • INDICATIONS FOR ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY

        119: VALVULAR HEART DISEASE

        • MITRAL STENOSIS (MS)
        • MITRAL REGURGITATION (MR)
        • MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE (MVP)
        • AORTIC STENOSIS (AS)
        • AORTIC REGURGITATION (AR)
        • TRICUSPID STENOSIS (TS)
        • TRICUSPID REGURGITATION (TR)

        120: CARDIOMYOPATHIES AND MYOCARDITIS

        • DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY (CMP)
        • RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY
        • HYPERTROPHIC OBSTRUCTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY (HOCM)
        • MYOCARDITIS

        121: PERICARDIAL DISEASE

        • ACUTE PERICARDITIS
        • CARDIAC TAMPONADE
        • CONSTRICTIVE PERICARDITIS

        122: HYPERTENSION

        • SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

        123: ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (STEMI)

        • COMPLICATIONS
        • SECONDARY PREVENTION

        124: CHRONIC STABLE ANGINA, UNSTABLE ANGINA, AND NON-ST-ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

        • CHRONIC STABLE ANGINA
        • UNSTABLE ANGINA AND NON-ST-ELEVATION MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
        • PRINZMETAL’S VARIANT ANGINA (CORONARY VASOSPASM)

        125: ARRHYTHMIAS

        • Preexcitation Syndrome (WPW)
        • AV Block

        126: CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE AND COR PULMONALE

        • HEART FAILURE
        • COR PULMONALE

        127: DISEASES OF THE AORTA

        • AORTIC ANEURYSM
        • AORTIC DISSECTION (Fig. 127-1)
        • OTHER ABNORMALITIES OF THE AORTA

        128: PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE

        • ARTERIOSCLEROSIS OF PERIPHERAL ARTERIES
        • VENOUS DISEASE
        • LYMPHEDEMA

        129: PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

        • PRIMARY PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

      SECTION 9 RESPIRATORY DISEASES

        130: RESPIRATORY FUNCTION AND PULMONARY DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

        • RESPIRATORY FUNCTION
        • DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES

        131: ASTHMA AND HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS

        • ASTHMA
        • HYPERSENSITIVITY PNEUMONITIS

        132: ENVIRONMENTAL LUNG DISEASES

        • OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES AND PULMONARY DISEASE
        • GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES
        • PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT

        133: CHRONIC BRONCHITIS, EMPHYSEMA, AND ACUTE OR CHRONIC RESPIRATORY FAILURE

        • Natural History
        • Clinical Manifestations

        134: PNEUMONIA AND LUNG ABSCESS

        • DEFINITIONS
        • ROUTES OF INFECTION
        • COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA (CAP)
        • HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED (NOSOCOMIAL) PNEUMONIA (HAP)

        135: PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

        • PULMONARY EMBOLISM (PE) (See Fig. 135-1)

        136: INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE (ILD)

        • INDIVIDUAL ILDS

        137: DISEASES OF THE PLEURA, MEDIASTINUM, AND DIAPHRAGM

        • PLEURAL DISEASE
        • MEDIASTINAL DISEASE
        • DISORDERS OF DIAPHRAGM

        138: DISORDERS OF VENTILATION, INCLUDING SLEEP APNEA

        • HYPOVENTILATION SYNDROMES
        • SLEEP APNEA
        • HYPERVENTILATION

      SECTION 10 RENAL DISEASES

        139: APPROACH TO THE PATIENT WITH RENAL DISEASE

        • Acute Renal Failure (See Chap. 140)
        • Chronic Renal Failure (See Chap. 141)
        • Nephrotic Syndrome (See Chap. 144)
        • Asymptomatic Urinary Abnormalities
        • Urinary Tract Infection (See Chap. 146)
        • Renal Tubular Defects (See Chap. 145)
        • Hypertension (See Chap. 122)
        • Nephrolithiasis (See Chap. 148)
        • Urinary Tract Obstruction (See Chap. 149)

        140: ACUTE RENAL FAILURE

        • Definition
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Characteristic Findings and Diagnostic Workup

        141: CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD) AND UREMIA

        • Epidemiology
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • The Uremic Syndrome

        142: DIALYSIS

        • Overview
        • Hemodialysis
        • Peritoneal Dialysis

        143: RENAL TRANSPLANTATION

        • Rejection
        • Immunosuppression
        • Other Complications

        144: GLOMERULAR DISEASES

        • ACUTE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS (GN)
        • RAPIDLY PROGRESSIVE GLOMERULONEPHRITIS
        • NEPHROTIC SYNDROME (NS)
        • ASYMPTOMATIC URINARY ABNORMALITIES

        145: RENAL TUBULAR DISEASE

        • ACUTE (ALLERGIC) INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS (AIN)
        • CHRONIC INTERSTITIAL NEPHRITIS (IN)
        • POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE
        • RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS (RTA)

        146: URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

        • ACUTE URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS: URETHRITIS, CYSTITIS, AND PYELONEPHRITIS
        • PAPILLARY NECROSIS
        • EMPHYSEMATOUS PYELONEPHRITIS
        • PROSTATITIS

        147: RENOVASCULAR DISEASE

        • Acute Occlusion of a Renal Artery
        • Renal Vein Thrombosis
        • Renal Artery Stenosis (See Table 147-1)
        • Ischemic Nephropathy
        • Scleroderma
        • Arteriolar Nephrosclerosis
        • Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome
        • Toxemias of Pregnancy
        • Vasculitis
        • Sickle Cell Nephropathy

        148: NEPHROLITHIASIS

        • Signs and Symptoms
        • Stone Composition
        • Workup

        149: URINARY TRACT OBSTRUCTION

        • Clinical Manifestations

      SECTION 11 GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASES

        150: PEPTIC ULCER AND RELATED DISORDERS

        • PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE (PUD)
        • GASTROPATHIES
        • ZOLLINGER-ELLISON (Z-E) SYNDROME (GASTRINOMA)

        151: INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES

        • ULCERATIVE COLITIS (UC)
        • CROHN’S DISEASE (CD)
        • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
        • EXTRAINTESTINAL MANIFESTATIONS (UC and CD)

        152: COLONIC AND ANORECTAL DISEASES

        • IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME (IBS)
        • DIVERTICULAR DISEASE
        • INTESTINAL PSEUDOOBSTRUCTION
        • VASCULAR DISORDERS (SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE)
        • COLONIC ANGIODYSPLASIA
        • ANORECTAL DISEASES

        153: CHOLELITHIASIS, CHOLECYSTITIS, AND CHOLANGITIS

        • CHOLELITHIASIS
        • ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS
        • CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS
        • CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS/CHOLANGITIS
        • PRIMARY SCLEROSING CHOLANGITIS (PSC)

        154: PANCREATITIS

        • ACUTE PANCREATITIS
        • CHRONIC PANCREATITIS

        155: ACUTE HEPATITIS

        • VIRAL HEPATITIS
        • TOXIC AND DRUG-INDUCED HEPATITIS
        • ACUTE HEPATIC FAILURE

        156: CHRONIC HEPATITIS

        • OVERVIEW
        • CHRONIC HEPATITIS B
        • CHRONIC HEPATITIS C
        • AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS

        157: CIRRHOSIS AND ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE

        • CIRRHOSIS
        • ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE
        • PRIMARY BILIARY CIRRHOSIS
        • LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

        158: PORTAL HYPERTENSION

        • ESOPHAGOGASTRIC VARICES
        • HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY

      SECTION 12 ALLERGY, CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, AND RHEUMATOLOGY

        159: DISEASES OF IMMEDIATE TYPE HYPERSENSITIVITY

        • URTICARIA AND ANGIOEDEMA
        • ALLERGIC RHINITIS
        • SYSTEMIC MASTOCYTOSIS

        160: PRIMARY IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES

        • DEFINITION
        • DIAGNOSIS
        • CLASSIFICATION
        • MISCELLANEOUS IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROMES

        161: SLE, RA, AND OTHER CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASES

        • CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE
        • SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE)
        • RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)
        • SYSTEMIC SCLEROSIS (SCLERODERMA, SSC)
        • MIXED CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASE (MCTD)
        • SJÖGREN’S SYNDROME

        162: VASCULITIS

        • Definition and Pathogenesis
        • Primary Vasculitis Syndromes
        • Secondary Vasculitis Syndromes
        • Evaluation (See Fig. 162-1)
        • Differential Diagnosis

        163: ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS

        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Physical Examination
        • Evaluation
        • Diagnosis

        164: PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS

        • Definition
        • Patterns of Joint Involvement
        • Evaluation
        • Diagnosis

        165: REACTIVE ARTHRITIS AND REITER’S SYNDROME

        • Definition
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Evaluation
        • Differential Diagnosis
        • Outcome

        166: OSTEOARTHRITIS

        • Definition
        • Epidemiology
        • Pathogenesis
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Evaluation
        • Diagnosis

        167: GOUT, PSEUDOGOUT, AND RELATED DISEASES

        • GOUT
        • CPPD DEPOSITION DISEASE (PSEUDOGOUT)
        • HYDROXYAPATITE ARTHROPATHY
        • CALCIUM OXALATE DEPOSITION DISEASE

        168: OTHER ARTHRITIDES

        • ENTEROPATHIC ARTHRITIS
        • NEUROPATHIC JOINT DISEASE
        • RELAPSING POLYCHONDRITIS
        • HYPERTROPHIC OSTEOARTHROPATHY
        • FIBROMYALGIA
        • REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY SYNDROME (RSDS)
        • POLYMYALGIA RHEUMATICA (PMR)
        • OSTEONECROSIS (AVASCULAR NECROSIS)
        • PERIARTICULAR DISORDERS

        169: SARCOIDOSIS

        • Definition
        • Pathophysiology
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Evaluation
        • Diagnosis
        • Outcome

        170: AMYLOIDOSIS

        • Definition
        • Classification
        • Clinical Manifestations
        • Diagnosis
        • Prognosis

      SECTION 13 ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM

        171: DISORDERS OF THE ANTERIOR PITUITARY AND HYPOTHALAMUS

        • PITUITARY TUMORS
        • PITUITARY HORMONE HYPERSECRETION SYNDROMES
        • HYPOPITUITARISM

        172: DISORDERS OF THE POSTERIOR PITUITIARY

        • DIABETES INSIPIDUS
        • SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE (SIADH)

        173: DISORDERS OF THE THYROID

        • HYPOTHYROIDISM
        • THYROTOXICOSIS
        • SICK EUTHYROID SYNDROME
        • AMIODARONE
        • NONTOXIC GOITER
        • TOXIC MULTINODULAR GOITER AND TOXIC ADENOMA
        • THYROID NEOPLASMS

        174: DISORDERS OF THE ADRENAL GLAND

        • HYPERFUNCTION OF THE ADRENAL GLAND
        • HYPOFUNCTION OF THE ADRENAL GLAND
        • INCIDENTAL ADRENAL MASSES
        • CLINICAL USES OF GLUCOCORTICOIDS

        175: OBESITY

        • Etiology

        176: DIABETES MELLITUS

          177: DISORDERS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

          • ANDROGEN DEFICIENCY
          • MALE INFERTILITY
          • ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION

          178: DISORDERS OF THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

          • ABNORMAL UTERINE BLEEDING
          • AMENORRHEA
          • PELVIC PAIN
          • HIRSUTISM
          • MENOPAUSE
          • CONTRACEPTION
          • INFERTILITY

          179: HYPERCALCEMIC AND HYPOCALCEMIC DISORDERS

          • HYPERCALCEMIA
          • HYPOCALCEMIA
          • HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA
          • HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA
          • HYPOMAGNESEMIA
          • HYPERMAGNESEMIA

          180: OSTEOPOROSIS AND OSTEOMALACIA

          • OSTEOPOROSIS
          • OSTEOMALACIA

          181: DISORDERS OF LIPID METABOLISM

          • ISOLATED HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA
          • ISOLATED HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA
          • HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA AND HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA
          • PREVENTION OF THE COMPLICATIONS OF ATHEROSCLEROSIS

          182: HEMOCHROMATOSIS, PORPHYRIAS, AND WILSON’S DISEASE

          • HEMOCHROMATOSIS
          • PORPHYRIAS
          • WILSON’S DISEASE

        SECTION 14 NEUROLOGY

          183: THE NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION

          • MENTAL STATUS EXAM
          • CRANIAL NERVE (CN) EXAM
          • MOTOR EXAM
          • REFLEXES
          • SENSORY EXAM
          • COORDINATION AND GAIT

          184: NEUROIMAGING

            185: SEIZURES AND EPILEPSY

            • Seizure Classification
            • Etiology
            • Clinical Evaluation
            • Electroencephalography
            • Brain Imaging

            186: TUMORS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

            • Primary Intracranial Tumors
            • Tumors Metastatic to the Nervous System
            • Complications of Radiation Therapy

            187: ACUTE MENINGITIS AND ENCEPHALITIS

            • ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINGITIS
            • VIRAL MENINGITIS
            • VIRAL ENCEPHALITIS
            • BRAIN ABSCESS
            • PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY (PML)

            188: CHRONIC MENINGITIS

              189: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS (MS)

              • Clinical Manifestations
              • Physical Examination
              • Disease Course
              • Laboratory Findings
              • CLINICAL VARIANTS OF MS
              • ACUTE DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS (ADEM)

              190: ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE AND OTHER DEMENTIAS

              • DEMENTIA
              • ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE (AD)
              • OTHER CAUSES OF DEMENTIA

              191: PARKINSON’S DISEASE

              • Clinical Features
              • Etiology
              • Differential Diagnosis

              192: ATAXIC DISORDERS

              • Clinical Presentation
              • Inherited Ataxias
              • Evaluation

              193: ALS AND OTHER MOTOR NEURON DISEASES

              • Etiology
              • Clinical Presentation
              • Physical Examination
              • Laboratory Findings
              • Complications

              194: TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA, BELL’S PALSY, AND OTHER CRANIAL NERVE DISORDERS

              • FACIAL PAIN OR NUMBNESS [TRIGEMINAL NERVE (V)]
              • FACIAL WEAKNESS [FACIAL NERVE (VII)]
              • OTHER CRANIAL NERVE DISORDERS
              • MULTIPLE CRANIAL NERVE PALSIES

              195: AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISORDERS

              • ANS Overview
              • Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction
              • Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System
              • Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy—RSD)

              196: SPINAL CORD DISEASES

              • Symptoms and Signs
              • Specific Signs by Spinal Cord Level
              • Intramedullary and Extramedullary Syndromes
              • Acute and Subacute Spinal Cord Diseases
              • Chronic Myelopathies
              • Complications

              197: PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIES INCLUDING GUILLAIN-BARRÉ SYNDROME

              • POLYNEUROPATHY
              • MONONEUROPATHY

              198: MYASTHENIA GRAVIS (MG)

              • Clinical Features
              • Pathophysiology
              • Differential Diagnosis
              • Laboratory Evaluation

              199: MUSCLE DISEASES

              • MUSCULAR DYSTROPHIES
              • INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES
              • METABOLIC MYOPATHIES
              • MITOCHONDRIAL MYOPATHIES
              • PERIODIC PARALYSES
              • ENDOCRINE DISORDERS, DRUGS, AND TOXINS

              200: CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME

              • Pathogenesis
              • Clinical Manifestations
              • Diagnosis

            SECTION 15 PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND PSYCHOACTIVE SUBSTANCE USE

              201: PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

              • MAJOR PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS (AXIS I DIAGNOSES)
              • PERSONALITY DISORDERS (AXIS II DIAGNOSES)

              202: PSYCHIATRIC MEDICATIONS

              • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF USE
              • ANTIDEPRESSANTS (ADS)
              • ANXIOLYTICS
              • ANTIPSYCHOTIC MEDICATIONS
              • MOOD-STABILIZING AGENTS

              203: EATING DISORDERS

              • Definitions
              • Clinical Features

              204: ALCOHOLISM

              • Clinical Features
              • Laboratory Findings

              205: NARCOTIC ABUSE

              • Clinical Features

            SECTION 16 ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS

              206: ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS

              SECTION 17 WOMEN’S HEALTH

                207: WOMEN’S HEALTH

                • SEX DIFFERENCES IN HEALTH AND DISEASE

              SECTION 18 SCREENING AND DISEASE PREVENTION

                208: HEALTH MAINTENANCE AND DISEASE PREVENTION

                SECTION 19 LABORATORY VALUES

                  209: APPENDIX: LABORATORY VALUES OF CLINICAL IMPORTANCE

                  • REFERENCE VALUES FOR LABORATORY TESTS
                  • REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPECIFIC ANALYTES
                  • SPECIAL FUNCTION TESTS